Body Parts with Possessive Suffixes

In the entry, we have talked about the idea of two body parts considered one. Usually, it is enough to say a body part in singular because you need both legs, arms, etc. to function adequately as a human being. So you often hear Fáj a lábam = My leg hurts even if both legs hurt.

However, this is not a rule carved in stone. Obviously, you can say Fájnak a lábaim = My legs hurt just as well.

Due to the habit of thinking in singular, we say fél-half instead of one-egy in the examples below.

Fél szememre vak vagyok – Im blind in one eye
Fél fülemre süket vagyok – Im deaf in one ear
áj a jobb/ball kezemMy right/left hand hurt

NOTE! The body parts always need the possessive suffixes unlike in the English sentence

Lets see the declination of some body parts with the possessive suffixes. The rules for POSSESSIVE SUFFIXES can be found here

You already know that if a noun takes the plural -OK, it also has the O link vowel in possessive forms and if it takes -AK, it needs an A link vowel: orrok – noses, orrommy nose; vállak – shoulders, vállammy shoulder. It is important to remember that for front-vowel words as well: -EK > E testek – bodies, testemmy body; -ÖK > Ö köldökök – navels ; köldökömmy navel. Where necessary, I give you the plural form of subjective case in parenthesis (-AK).

R E G U L A R   W O R D S


sing: testem, tested, teste, testünk, testetek, testük
plur: testeim, testeid, testei, testeink, testeitek, testeik


sing: fejem, fejed, feje, fejünk, fejetek, fejük
plur: fejeim, fejeid, fejei, fejeink, fejeitek, fejeik


sing: szemem, szemed, szeme, szemünk, szemetek, szemük
szemeim, szemeid, szemei, szemeink, szemeitek, szemeik


sing: fülem, füled, füle, fülünk, fületek, fülük
füleim, füleid, fülei, füleink, füleitek, füleik


sing: arcom, arcod, arca, arcunk, arcotok, arcuk
arcaim, arcaid, arcai, arcaink, arcaitok, arcaik


sing: orrom, orrod, orra, orrunk, orrotok, orruk
plur: orraim, orraid, orrai, orraink, orraitok, orraik


sing: szemöldököm, szemöldököd, szemöldöke, szemöldökünk, szemöldökötök, szemöldökük
szemöldökeim, szemöldökeid, szemöldökei, szemöldökeink, szemöldökeitek, szemöldökeik


sing: szempillám, szempillád, szempillája, szempillánk, szempillátok, szempillájuk
szempilláim, szempilláid, szempillái, szempilláink, szempilláitok, szempilláik

Other bodyparts with regular declination are: homlok forehead, tarkó nape, mell breasts, mellkas (-ok) chest, ágyék groin, here testicle, szőrzet hair (on face and body), térd knees, comb thighs, lábfej feet, csukló wrist, könyök elbow, lép spleen, epe bile, garat gullet, lapocka shoulder-blade, gerinc spine, nyelv tongue, szájpadlás palate, hüvely vagina, etc.

Sometimes the plural forms dont really make any sense like those with single bodyparts, nonetheless I will give you those forms underlined, as well.


W O R D S  W I T H  -A  I N S T E A D  O F  -O  L I N K  V O W E L



sing: hajam, hajad, haja, hajunk, hajatok, hajuk
plur: hajaim, hajaid, hajai, hajaink, hajaitok, hajaik

>Haj only refers to the hair on your head and remains singular:
Megfésülöm a hajam. – I’ll comb my hair.

>Szőr refers to any other body part than your head and remains singular:
Leperzseltem a szőrt a karomról. – I’ve burnt the hair from my arm.
>Szőrzet puts more emphasis on hair as a whole in: arcszőrzet – facial hair, testszőrzet – body hair


sing: vállam, vállad, válla, vállunk, vállatok, válluk
vállaim, vállaid, vállai, vállaink, vállaitok, vállaik


sing: állam, állad, álla, állunk, állatok, álluk
plur: állaim, állaid, állai, állaink, állaitok, állaik


sing: nyakam, nyakad, nyaka, nyakunk, nyakatok, nyakuk
plur: nyakaim, nyakaid, nyakai, nyakaink, nyakaitok, nyakaik


sing: hasam, hasad, hasa, hasunk, hasatok, hasuk
plur: hasaim, hasaid, hasai, hasaink, hasaitok, hasaik


sing: hátam, hátad, háta, hátunk, hátatok, hátuk
plur: hátaim, hátaid, hátai, hátaink, hátaitok, hátaik


sing: ujjam, ujjad, ujja, ujjunk, ujjatok, ujjuk
ujjaim, ujjaid, ujjai, ujjaink, ujjaitok, ujjaik


sing: hónaljam, hónaljad, hónalja, hónaljunk, hónaljatok, hónaljuk
hónaljaim, hónaljaid, hónaljai, hónaljaink, hónaljaitok, hónaljaik


sing: májam, jad, ja, májunk, májatok, májuk
plur: májaim, jaid, jai, májaink, májaitok, májaik


sing: fogam, fogad, foga, fogunk, fogatok, foguk
fogaim, fogaid, fogai, fogaink, fogaitok, fogaik


sing: talpam, talpad, talpa, talpunk, talpatok, talpuk
talpaim, talpaid, talpai, talpaink, talpaitok, talpaik




sing: szám, szád, szája, szánk, szátok, szájuk
plur: szájaim, szájaid, szájai, szájaink, szájaitok, szájaik

It loses the J at the end in all numbers but the 3rd PS and 3rd PP in singular form. The plural forms make absolutely no sense, of course. We have one mouth, but those would be the forms if we had more than one mouth. 🙂


D R O P – V O W E L  W O R D S


sing: körmöm, körmöd, körme, körmünk, körmötök, körmük
körmeim, körmeid, körmei, körmeink, körmeitek, körmeik


sing: ajkam, ajkad, ajka, ajkunk, ajkatok, ajkuk
ajkaim, ajkaid, ajkai, ajkaink, ajkaitok, ajkaik
>This word is a perfectly good example for the unnecessary plural form because obviously your lips are made of two parts, so you can just say: Az ajkam meg van duzzadva. – My lips are swollen.

sing: torkom, torkod, torka, torkunk, torkotok, torkuk
plur: torkaim, torkaid, torkai, torkaink, torkaitok, torkaik


sing: gyomrom, gyomrod, gyomra, gyomrunk, gyomrotok, gyomruk
plur: gyomraim, gyomraid, gyomrai, gyomraink, gyomraitok, gyomraik


sing: sarkam, sarkad, sarka, sarkunk, sarkatok, sarkuk
sarkaim, sarkaid, sarkai, sarkaink, sarkaitok, sarkaik


W O R D S   W I T H   V O W E L S   S H O R T E N E D


sing: kezem, kezed, keze, kezünk, kezetek, kezük
kezeim, kezeid, kezei, kezeink, kezeitek, kezeik


sing: derekam, derekad, dereka, derekunk, derekatok, derekuk
plur: derekaim, derekaid, derekai, derekaink, derekaitok, derekaik


sing: fenekem, feneked, feneke, fenekünk, feneketek, fenekük
plur: fenekeim, fenekeid, fenekei, fenekeink, fenekeitek, fenekeik


sing: szivem, szived, szive, szivünk, szivetek, szivük
plur: sziveim, sziveid, szivei, sziveink, sziveitek, sziveik

> However, you can also see the forms with long í: szívem, szíved…It is your choice.


sing: belem, beled, bele, belünk, beletek, belük
beleim, beleid, belei, beleink, beletiek, beleik

The suffixes -ás, -és versus -at, -et

Hungarian verbs can be turned into nouns with the suffixes -ás, -és and -at, -et. The question is: what’s the difference between their meanings?

-ÁS, -ÉS: they refer to the progress of the action expressed by the verb.
-AT, -ET: they refer to the result of the action expressed by the verb.

emel – to lift, to raise; to elevate
emelés – lifting; elevation
emelet – storey; floor

ír – to write
írás – writing
irat – document; written paper > note that the long í becomes short i.

von – to drag, to draw
vonás – dragging; line; feature
vonat – train

mond – to say, to tell
mondás – saying; locution
mondat – sentence

jósol – predict
jóslás – prophecy; prediction, forecast
jóslat – prophecy
>The last o is omitted in the substantivated forms.

fúr – to drill
fúrás – drilling
furat – borehole > note that the long ú becomes short u.

terem – to bear, to produce, to grow
termés – crop, harvest
termet – stature, figure
>The last e is omitted in the substantivated forms.

szel – to slice
szelés – slicing
szelet – slice (of  bread)

(fel)kel – to get up
(fel)kelés – getting up
kelet – east

akar – to want
akarás – willingness
akarat – will

áll – to stand
állás – standing; job
állat – animal

Suffixes -ít vs. -ul, -ül = make vs. get

-ÍT vs. -UL, -ÜL

The difference between these suffixes is that –ít expresses an action that has an effect on someone/something, but –ul, -ül refer back to the person like –ik verbs.

You can depend on these English verbs: make, get. Take a look at this:

javít to make better <> javul to get better

The suffix –ít can be parallel with make and –ul, -ül with get.

More examples:

tanít to teach <> tanul to learn, to study
alakít to form <> alakul to take shape
szorít to press <> szorul to get pressed/squeezed
terít to spread out; to lay <> terül to be situated; to lie
merít to dip, to plunge <> merül to dive, to submerge
lazít to loosen <> lazul to loosen, to get loose
szorít to press <> szorul to get pressed/squeezed
hevít to heat <> hevül to get heated
mozdít to move; to get sg to move <> mozdul to move, to get moving
békít to conciliate <> békül to reconcile oneself
megrendít to stagger; to shake <> megrendül to shake, to be shocked
ámít to delude <> ámul to marvel
készít to prepare, to make <> készül to prepare, to be made

A tanár tanít. – The teacher teaches.
A diák tanul. – The student learns/studies.

Kisujját sem mozdítja. – He never stirrs a finger.
A kutya nem mozdul. – The dog won’t move.

A politikusok csak ámítanak. – Politicians delude us.
A nézők ámulnak a filmen. – The viewers marvel at the movie.

The suffixes -i and -ú, -ű

Let’s go back to grammar for this entry. I want to tell you about two common suffixes.

THE SUFFIX -I: is used to express an object / a person belonging somewhere or a characteristic. When added to the noun, it must be written in small letters as a rule. Only nouns can take it, but of course, not all of them. Examples:

belonging to a place
Budapest > budapesti >> Én budapesti vagyok.
London > londoni >> Ő londoni.

hely > helyi >> helyi szokás local custom
egyed > egyedi >> egyedi kép unique picture
tenger > tengeri >> tengeri állat sea animal
isten > isteni >> isteni kegyelem grace of god

THE SUFFIXES -Ú, -Ű: are used to express a quality, characteristic. High words take -ű, deep words take -ú.

haj > hajú >> barna hajú brown-haired OR has brown hair
szem > szemű >> kék szemű blue-eyed OR has blue eyes
egyszer > egyszerű >> egyszerű feladat simple task
méret > méretű >> kis méretű kocsi car of small size
alak > alakú >> henger alakú tárgy cylinder-shaped object
név > nevű >> a német nevű fiú the boy with the German name
hír > hírű >> jó hírű színész actor with good reputation
szó > szavú >> halk szavú gyerek soft-spoken child
test > testű >> kis testű állat animal with a small body

Summary for Adverbs of Manner with -ly


1. -n, -an, -on, -en

These are standard suffixes to form adverbs of manner. Use them with adjectives according to the link vowel of their plural forms.

-they must be used with adjectives ending with -os, -es, -ös, -s!
-with some adjectives that end with ú, ű!


békések > békésen = peaceably
szépek > szépen = beautifully
alaposak > alaposan = thoroughly
bátor – bátrak > bátran = bravely
vastagok > vastagon = thickly
egyoldalúan = in a one-sided way
egyértelműen = unequivocally


lassú > lassan = slowly
hosszú > hosszan = for a long time
könnyű > könnyen = easily
szörnyű > szörnyen = terribly
nagy = big > nagyon = very

2. -lag, -leg

These suffixes are used with:

-adjectives ending with –i
some adjectives ending with ó, ő, ű
-and with some more adjectives

barátilag = amicably
elvileg = theoretically
állítólag = allegedly
ellenkezőleg = on the contrary
valószínűleg = probably
aránylag = relatively
végleg = definitely
tényleg = really, truly

3. ul, -ül, -l

These suffixes are used with:

languages spoken/written/learned by someone
-adjectives with these privative suffixes: -talan, -telen, -atlan, -etlen
-and some more adjectives

Beszélek olaszul. = I speak Italian.
Németül írok. = I’m writing in German.
Angolul tanulok. = I’m learning English.
aránytalanul = disproportionately
védtelenül = helplessly
akaratlanul = unintentionally
kelletlenül = reluctantly

Besides, the adverbs well/right and badly/wrong are formed with these suffixes, too:

jó > jól = well/right
rossz > rosszul = badly/wrong

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Manner, Hogy?


English equivalent is: How?

ATTENTION! How? corresponds with the Hungarian word only if you express mode, condition, NEVER PROPERTY OR QUALITY. Of course, there are exceptions:

How was your day? – Milyen napod volt?

If the question word How? requires a specific quality as an answer, one says: Milyen?

But now we’re interested in Hogy? Examples:

Hogy vagy? – How are you?
Hogy jöttél ide? – How did you come here?
Hogy megy a munka? – How is your work going?

There’s a longer version of this word: Hogyan? No difference between the two forms, but the short version is more in use.

The answers to the question could be: jól – fine; gyalog – on foot; lassan – slowly. These words are adverbs of manner. The possibilities to form them are quite a few! Besides, there are adverbs of manner representing this part of the speech by themselves (gyalog). Standard English adverbs of manner are formed from adjectives with the ending –ly: happily, mainly, and so on…

Hungarian equivalents are:
-lag, -leg
-ul, -ül
-an, -en

Next time we’ll see their use.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Manner, the Suffix -ért


The basic meaning of -ért is: for, for the sake of

The same rules are valid for it as for the other suffixes. It is simply attached to a word and if that word ends with a or e, then those vowels become á, é:

alma-almáért, gereblye-gereblyéért

It also has personal forms:
értem – for me
érted – for you
érte – for him/her/it
értünk – for us
értetek – for you
értük – for them

And the polite forms are: önért, magáért, önökért, magukért

It can be intensified: énértem, teérted, őérte, etc. The forms for the polite forms are intensified in the speech: önért, magáért

Not to be confused with the verb ért, that is to understand!

(Azt) értem. – I understand (that).
(Ezt) értem tetted? – You did (this) for me?

Like always az, ez can take this suffix.

azért – for that
ezért – for this

Ezért also means: therefore, this is why
Azért also means: therefore, that is why


A népemért bármit megteszek.
I do anything for my people.

A lány beesett a Dunába, ő meg beugrott érte.
The girl fell into the Danube and he jumped after her.

Csak érted tettem, amit tettem.
I only did for you what I did.

Értem te ne hazudj a tanárnak!
Don’t lie to the teacher for my sake.

Kettőkor érte megyek az állomásra.
I’m going to pick her up at the station at two.

Nem jött, ezért hazamentem, nem vártam tovább.
He didn’t come, so I went home. I didn’t wait any longer.

Beteg volt és ezért nem hívott fel.
She was ill and this is why she didn’t call me.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Manner, Introduction


Hungarian adverbs of manner have a crucial part in expressing mood and condition, answering the question How? = Hogy?

But first let’s see another case in connection with a purpose or a reason. The base for that could be the question word ’Why?’, whose equivalent is Miért? That is, the question word Mi? takes the suffix -ért, whose meaning is the same as the preposition for.

In a word, Hungarian question words are: Miért? – Why? AND Kiért? – For whom?

If you want to say that somebody does something for a purpose or a reason, then do this.

Miért vagy itt? –Azért vagyok itt, hogy beszéljek veled.
Why are you here?- I’m here to talk to you.

Miért vagy itt? –Azért vagyok itt, mert beszélni akarok veled.
Why are you here? -I’m here because I want to talk to you.

So the question Miért? can be answered with a sentence explaining the purpose or the reason.

ATTENTION! In Hungarian, sometimes there’s an ANTECEDENT at the beginning of the sentence (in this case: Azért). This phenomenon does not exist in English. The first sentence literally is:

I’m here (for the purpose) so that I talk to you.

Whereas the second one:

I’m here (for the reason) that I want to talk to you.


Question: Miért = Why?
Answer: Azért, …hogy = …(in order) to

Question: Miért? = Why?
Answer: Azért, …mert = …because

So much for the introduction.

As for the following issues, we’ll learn the meaning of the suffix -ért and how to form adverbs of manner expressed with -ly in English (happily, easily…)

Bye now!

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Time, Summary

So we’ve arrived at the end of this topic (adverbs of time). Below you see a summary with the names of the cases. However, we’re still talking about TIME in the following entries, too. Expressing time, date and so on…


Suffixes/Postpositions > Case
= English Equilvalent

-val, -vel > instrumental case
= with

-kor > temporal case
= at (five, dawn)

-ig > terminative case
= until (tomorrow), up to (the house)

-tól, -től…-ig = from…(up) to

-(o/e)nként, -(o)nta, -(e)nte > distributive temporal case
= every, each, on…s (every day, on Mondays)

óta = for (a day), since (I arrived)

múlva = in, within (a year)

közben, alatt, során, folyamán = during, in the course of

körül, tájt, tájban = about (nine o’clock), round, towards (midnight)

felé = towards morning (a period of hour or day starts)

előtt, után = before, after

-val, -vel ezelőtt = ago (two days ago)

között = between (two and three o’clock)

hosszat = for (hours on end)

-n, -on, -en, -ön át/keresztül = for (two days)

-n, -on, -en, -ön belül = within (a week)

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Time, More Stuff


This construction expresses a moment in the past and even determines it. English equivalent is: ago. Előtt is not to be confused with ezelőtt!

Öt perccel ezelőtt láttam.
I saw her five minutes ago.

Kilenc hónappal ezelőtt még nem tudtam róla.
I didn’t know about it nine months ago.


These express frequency, that something repeats at certain intervals.

The English equivalents are: every or on…s. The suffix -nként is used for the days of the week and periods of the day.

These suffixes can be replaced by the indefinite pronoun minden, meaning every. In this case, minden is followed by -n, -on, -en, -ön for days and –ban, -ben for year, month! See the examples:

naponta = minden nap > every day
hetente = minden héten > every week
havonta = minden hónapban > every month
évente = minden évben > every year
hétfőnként = minden hétfőn > every Monday, on Mondays
keddenként = minden kedden > every Tuesday, on Tuesdays
esténként = minden este > every night
délutánonként = minden délután > every afternoon

The questions are: Milyen gyakran? Hányszor? = How often? How many times?


Sometimes the definite article may assume the function of putting an adverb of time in past or future tense.

az este = tegnap este > last night
a héten = ezen a héten > this week
a napokban = az elmúlt napokban > the other day

Az este nem tudtam aludni. – I couldn’t get a sleep last night.
A héten alig láttalak. – I hardly saw you this week.
A napokban hallottam a hírt. – I’ve heard the news recently.
Majd a nyáron napozunk! – We’ll sunbathe next summer.


This postposition equals to: towards. You see the literal translation below.

este felé – towards night
reggel felé – towards morning


English equivalent: between. It expresses a given moment between two points in time.

két és három óra között – between two and three o’clock


If something happens approximately at a specific moment, Hungarian offers more possibilities: körül, tájban, tájt.

Dél körül ebédelni megyünk.
We’ll go to have lunch round at noon.

Nyolc körül várlak a színházban.
I’ll wait for you in the theatre at about eight.

Éjféltájt szinte mindenki alszik.
Almost everybody sleeps around midnight.

Öt óra tájban érkezik a vonat.
The train arrives at about five.


Hungarian has at least four postpositions to express something in progress, something happening during a specific moment. Here they are: KÖZBEN, ALATT, SORÁN, FOLYAMÁN. They’re equivalents to during, in the course of.

Alvás közben tehetetlenek vagyunk.
While sleeping, we’re helpless.

Evés közben jön meg az étvágy.
Appetite comes while eating. (Much will have more.)

A tárgyalás alatt minden rendben ment.
Everything was alright during the negotiation.

A verseny folyamán páran megsérültek.
In the course of the race some people have been injured.

A vizsgálat során nem találtak hibát.
No error was found during the investigation.


In this way, one can express a longer, more extended period. English equivalent: for.

Éveken át hallgattam a nyavajgását.
I’ve been listening to his complains for years now.

Hónapokon keresztül nem ehet zsíros ételt.
He’s not allowed to eat fat meals for months.

Két órán keresztül bámult maga elé.
He stared in front of him for two hours.

It’s worth to mention hosszat which has the same meaning, but it is used in certain expressions only:

órák hosszat = for hours on end; naphosszat = all days long


English says: before

Mielőtt megszidsz, hallgass meg (engem)!
Before you haul me over the coals, please listen to me!


soha – never
néha – sometimes, now and then
valaha – ever (Have you ever loved me?)
soká(ra) – late
sokáig – for a long time
örökké – forever
soha többet/többé soha/többé nem – never again
éppen most/az előbb/az imént – just now
későn – late
korán – early
nyomban/azonnal/rögtön/tüstént – right away, right now, immediately, on the spot
már – already, yet (I know already. Have you arrived yet?)
most – now
ma este/ma délután/ma reggel – tonight/this afternoon/this morning
még ma – this very day


Hungarian has special words to express which year I will do something.

az idén – this year
tavaly – last year
jövőre – next year

Examples in sentences:

Az idén érettségizek.
I’ll graduate from a high school this year.

Tavaly nősültem meg.
I married last year.

Jövőre egyetemre megyek.
Next year I’ll go to a college.