The suffixes -ás, -és versus -at, -et

Hungarian verbs can be turned into nouns with the suffixes -ás, -és and -at, -et. The question is: what’s the difference between their meanings?

-ÁS, -ÉS: they refer to the progress of the action expressed by the verb.
-AT, -ET: they refer to the result of the action expressed by the verb.

emel – to lift, to raise; to elevate
emelés – lifting; elevation
emelet – storey; floor

ír – to write
írás – writing
irat – document; written paper > note that the long í becomes short i.

von – to drag, to draw
vonás – dragging; line; feature
vonat – train

mond – to say, to tell
mondás – saying; locution
mondat – sentence

jósol – predict
jóslás – prophecy; prediction, forecast
jóslat – prophecy
>The last o is omitted in the substantivated forms.

fúr – to drill
fúrás – drilling
furat – borehole > note that the long ú becomes short u.

terem – to bear, to produce, to grow
termés – crop, harvest
termet – stature, figure
>The last e is omitted in the substantivated forms.

szel – to slice
szelés – slicing
szelet – slice (of  bread)

(fel)kel – to get up
(fel)kelés – getting up
kelet – east

akar – to want
akarás – willingness
akarat – will

áll – to stand
állás – standing; job
állat – animal

The suffixes -i and -ú, -ű

Let’s go back to grammar for this entry. I want to tell you about two common suffixes.

THE SUFFIX -I: is used to express an object / a person belonging somewhere or a characteristic. When added to the noun, it must be written in small letters as a rule. Only nouns can take it, but of course, not all of them. Examples:

belonging to a place
Budapest > budapesti >> Én budapesti vagyok.
London > londoni >> Ő londoni.

characteristic
hely > helyi >> helyi szokás local custom
egyed > egyedi >> egyedi kép unique picture
tenger > tengeri >> tengeri állat sea animal
isten > isteni >> isteni kegyelem grace of god

THE SUFFIXES -Ú, -Ű: are used to express a quality, characteristic. High words take -ű, deep words take -ú.

haj > hajú >> barna hajú brown-haired OR has brown hair
szem > szemű >> kék szemű blue-eyed OR has blue eyes
egyszer > egyszerű >> egyszerű feladat simple task
méret > méretű >> kis méretű kocsi car of small size
alak > alakú >> henger alakú tárgy cylinder-shaped object
név > nevű >> a német nevű fiú the boy with the German name
hír > hírű >> jó hírű színész actor with good reputation
szó > szavú >> halk szavú gyerek soft-spoken child
test > testű >> kis testű állat animal with a small body

Word Formation – Verbs

VERB FROM VERB

-at, -et, -tat, -tet = causative
iszik – to drink > itat – to give sy to drink
elhisz – to believe > elhitet – to make believe

-kodik, -kedik, -ködik = reflexive
mos – to wash > mosakodik – to (have a) wash
ver – to beat > verekedik – to fight with

-kozik, -kezik, -közik = reflexive
épít – to build > építkezik – to have a house built
ajánl – to offer > ajánlkozik – to offer oneself for

-ódik, -ődik = reflexive
vonz – to attract > vonzódik – to feel attracted

-ó(d)zik, -ő(d)zik = reflexive
fenyeget – to threaten > fenyegető(d)zik – to keep threatening

-hat, -het = to be allowed to
eszik – to eat > ehet – he/she can eat
áll – to stand > állhat – he/she can stand

-gat, -get, -gál, -gél = frequentative
húz – to drag > huzogat – to keep dragging
nevet – to laugh > nevetgél – to laugh heartily

-dos, -des, -dös = frequentative
lök – to push > lökdös – to jostle
csap – to hit > csapdos – to keep hitting

-kod, -ked, -köd = frequentative
lép – to step > lépked – to go stepwise
csap – to hit > csapkod – to keep beating

-dogál, -degél, -dögél = frequentative
ül – to sit > üldögél – to be sitting around
áll – to stand > álldogál – to be standing around

-ál = frequentative
mászik – to climb > mászkál – to roam about 

-n, -an, -en = momentary
villan – to flash
zörren – to rattle

-ll = momentary
szökell – to caper

-int = momentary
suhint – to flick

-d, -dul, -dül = momentary
mozog – to move > mozdul – to make a move
forog – to turn > fordul – to turn around

-l = inchoative
szédül – to feel dizzy

Word Formation – Verb, Numeral

VERB FROM NUMERAL

-oz(ik), -ez(ik), -öz(ik) = -ik verbs
egy – one > egyezik – to correspond

-l, -ol, -el,- öl = to turn sg into sg
harmad – third (part) > harmadol – to divide into three parts

-ll, -all, -ell = to act somehow
sok – many, much > sokall – find sg too much

VERB FROM PRONOUN

-z = -ik verbs
te – you > tegez – to call sy by one’s first name
maga – you (polite) > magáz – to call sy by one’s last name

NUMERAL FROM NUMERAL

-ad, -od, -ed, -öd = fraction
három – three > harmad – third (part)
tíz – ten > tized – tenth (part)

-adik, -odik,-edik, -ödik = ordinal
három – three > harmadik – third
tíz – ten > tizedik – tenth

Word Formation – Verbs from Nouns and Adjectives

VERB FROM NOUN

-oz(ik), -ez(ik), -öz(ik) = verbs in z, -ik verbs
név – name > nevez – to name, to call
hab – foam > habozik – to hesitate

-kodik, -kedik, -ködik = -ik verbs
kertész – gardener > kertészkedik – to work in one’s garden
jogász – lawyer > jogászkodik – to work as a lawyer

-ász(ik), -ész(ik) = -ik verbs
vadász – hunter > vadászik – to hunt
egér – mouse > egerészik – to hunt mice

-ít = to get into action
tan – doctrine > tanít – to teach
béke – peace > békít – to conciliate

-l, -ol, -el, -öl = to act somehow
gáncs – obstacle > gáncsol – to trip sy up
szék – chair > székel – to reside
böjt – fast > böjtöl – to (keep) fast

VERB FROM ADJECTIVE

-kodik, -kedik, -ködik = -ik verbs
érzelgős – sentimental > érzelgősködik – to be sentimental
bátor – brave > bátorkodik – take the liberty of

-ít = to turn sg into sg
kék – blue > kékít – to (paint) blue
ronda – ugly > rondít – to make sy ugly

-l, -ol, -el, -öl = to act somehow
helyes – right, proper > helyesel – to approve of

-ll, -all, -ell = to act somehow
rossz – bad > rosszall – to disapprove of

Word Formation – Adjective from Noun

ADJECTIVE FROM NOUN

-s, -os, -es, -ös = fitted with sg
szépség – beauty > szépséges – beautiful
barátság – friendship > barátságos – friendly

-(a)tlan, -(e)tlen = the lack of sg
haj – hair > hajatlan – hairless
fej – head > fejetlen – panic-stricken

-talan, -telen = the lack of sg
faj – race, species > fajtalan – perverse
hely – place > helytelen – inappropriate

-s, -as, -os, -es, -ös = fitted with sg
szellő – breeze > szellős – breezy
kerek – round > kerekes – with wheels

-ékony, -ékeny = characteristic of a noun
kár – damage > kártékony – harmful 

-ú, -ű, -jú, -jű = having sg, fitted with sg
szem – eye > szemű – eyed
alak – shape > alakú – shaped

-só, -ső = belonging swhere
fel – up > felső – upper
hát – back > hátsó – posterior

-i = origin, characteristic
város – city > városi – urban
Pécs > pécsi

-beli = belonging to sg
írás – writing > írásbeli – written, in writing
tér – space > térbeli – spatial

-szerű = it is like sg
mese – fairytale > meseszerű – fictitious
idő – time > időszerű – timely 

-féle = similar to sg
gyümölcs – fruit > gyümölcsféle – a kind of fruit

-fajta = similar to sg
kutya – dog > kutyafajta – a dog species

-nyi = measure
lapát – shovel > lapátnyi – shoveful
marok – hand > maroknyi – handful

Word Formation – Adjective from Verb

ADJECTIVE FROM VERB

-(a)tlan, -(e)tlen = the lack of sg
enged – to allow > engedetlen – disobedient
árt – to harm > ártatlan – innocent

-talan, -telen = the lack of sg
szűnik – to cease > szüntelen – unceasing
nyugszik – to rest > nyugtalan – unquiet, uneasy

-ékony, ékeny = characterizing an action
változik – to change > változékony – variable
félt – to fear for sy > féltékeny – jealous

-atag, -eteg = characterized by action
pöffeszkedik – to be conceited > pöfeteg – conceited
hallgat – to keep silence > hallgatag – taciturn

-ós, -ős = has an active sense to it
kap – to get > kapós – popular, much in demand
fél – to fear > félős – timid

ADVERB OF MANNER FROM ADJECTIVE

-n, -on, -en, -ön = mode, condition
csúnya – ugly > csúnyán – nastily
ügyes – clever > ügyesen – adetply

-lag, -leg = mode, condition
baráti – friendly > barátilag – in a friendly way
elvi – of principle > elvileg – theoretically

-l, -ul, -ül = mode, condition
– good > jól – well
német – German > németül – in German
rossz – bad > rosszul – badly