Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Manner, More Postpositions

NÉLKÜL

If you want to do without something, that’s the right postposition for it.

Esernyő nélkül nem megyek el.
I’m not leaving without an umbrella.

Cukor nélkül isszák a kávét.
They drink coffee without sugar.

The demonstrative pronouns az, ez change like this:
enélkül – without this, anélkül – without that

Personal forms: nélkülem, nélküled, nélküle, nélkülünk, nélkületek, nélkülük
Polite pers. forms: maga/maguk/ön/önök nélkül

HELYETT

It replaces something with something else: instead of, for

Cipő helyett pólót veszünk.
Instead of shoes, we’ll buy a shirt.

Helyetted nem tudok dönteni.
I can’t make this decision for you.

Helyette végzem el a munkát.
I’m accomplishing this job for him/instead of him.

The demonstrative pronouns az, ez change like this:
ehelyett – instead of this, ahelyett – instead of that

Personal forms: helyettem, helyetted, helyette, helyettünk, helyettetek, helyettük
Polite pers. forms: maga/maguk/ön/önök helyett

SZERINT

If you want to refer to other people’s opinion: according to, to think, to say

Az igazgató szerint nincs pénz.
The director says we have no money.

Szerinted megy ma dolgozni?
Do you think he’s going to work today?

A törvény szerint itt tilos a dohányzás.
According to the law, smoking is prohibited here.

The demonstrative pronouns az, ez change like this:
eszerint – according to this, aszerint – according to that

Personal forms: szerintem, szerinted, szerinte, szerintünk, szerintetek, szerintük
Polite pers. forms: maga/maguk/ön/önök szerint

ÁLTAL

This postposition is used if something is done by somebody. English equivalent: by

A titkárság által küldött levél megérkezett.
The letter sent by the secretariat has arrived.

It takes the possessive endings if it refers specifically to the person by whom something was done.

Az általa mondott történet igaz.
The story told by him is true.

The demonstrative pronoun az, ez change like this:
ezáltal – through this, azáltal – through that

Personal forms: általam, általad, általa, általunk, általatok, általuk
Polite pers. forms: maga/maguk/ön/önök által

ELLEN

This is a deceitful postposition. Let’s see why! The word itself ellen means: against

A döntése ellen nem tehetünk semmit.
We can’t do anything against his decision.

Nincs ellene kifogásom.
I have no objection against it.

The demonstrative pronouns az, ez change like this:
ez ellen – against this, az ellen – against that

Personal forms: ellenem, ellened, ellene, ellenünk, ellenetek, ellenük
Polite pers. forms: maga/maguk/ön/önök ellen

-If it takes the suffix -ben plus possessive ending, it has the meaning: in return for

Megfelelő szolgáltatás ellenében fizetek.
I’ll pay in return for appropriate service.

nyugta ellenében – against a receipt

készpénzfizetés ellenében – cash down

-If it takes the suffix -re, it means: notwithstanding, in spite of sg

A sztrájk ellenére nyugodt nap ez a mai.
Despite the strike, it is a calm day.

A bizonytalanságom ellenére elboldogulok.
In spite of my uncertainty, I’m getting on well.

akaratom ellenére – against my will

NO CONFUSION HERE:
ellen(e) – against
ellenében – in return for
ellenére- in spite of, despite, notwithstanding

MIATT, VÉGETT

Justifying something goes with these postpositions: because of. The postposition végett is almost completely extinct.

Az eső miatt bent ülünk a házban.
Because of the rain we’re sitting in the house.

Miattam történt a baleset. (>The accident happened because of me.)
The accident is my fault.

Emiatt nem látom a filmet.
That’s why/Therefore I won’t see the movie.

Az irat végett jöttem. (> I came because of the document.)
I’ve come for the document.

The demonstrative pronouns az, ez change like this:
emiatt, evégett – for this, amiatt, avégett – for that

Personal forms: miattam, miattad, miatta, miattunk, miattatok, miattuk
Polite pers. forms: maga/maguk/ön/önök miatt

No personal forms for végett. Actually, there are such forms, but they are too archaic.

IRÁNT

If I’m interested in something or someone, I say iránt which comes from irány (direction). Equivalent: towards

Nem érzek iránta semmit. – I don’t feel anything for her.

The demonstrative pronouns az, ez change like this:
ez iránt – for this, az iránt – for that

Personal forms: irántam, irántad, iránta, irántunk, irántatok, irántuk
Polite pers. forms: maga/maguk/ön/önök iránt

-NAK A, -NEK A JAVÁRA

If something happens for someone’s sake, that is: in favour of

4:0 a magyarok(nak a) javára – four up for the Hungarian team
A javamra írt ezer forintot. – He credited me thousand forints.
a vendégek(nek a) javára – in favour of the guests

Note that the suffix -nak a, -nek a are not mandatory to use because ‘java’ has a possessive ending. The context is clear: someone possesses something. Hence the parenthesis. As a matter of fact, java is the possessive form of jó (good). In itselg, it is used as a noun.

Csak a javadat akarom. – I just want you the best.

The demonstrative pronouns az, ez change like this:
ennek a javára – in favour of this, annak a javára – in favour of that

Personal forms: a javamra, javadra, javára, javunkra, javatokra, javukra
Polite pers. forms: a maga/maguk/ön/önök javára
>Note the definite article preceding java…

SZÁMÁRA, RÉSZÉRE

These postpositions are equal to the suffix -ért: for, to

Foglalok asztalt részükre. – I’ll book a table for them.
Számunkra ez nem jelent semmit. – To us, it doesn’t mean anything.

Personal forms: számomra, számodra, számára, számunkra, számotokra, számukra
Polite pers. forms: a maga/maguk/ön/önök számára
Personal forms: részemre, részedre, részére, részünkre, részetekre, részükre
Polite pers. forms: a maga/maguk/ön/önök részére
>Note the definite article for polite forms.

-NAK A, -NEK A FEJÉBEN

This postposition corresponds with ellenében: nyugta/nyugtának a fejébenagainst a receipt

No personal forms possible.

-NAK A, -NEK AZ ALAPJÁN

 Meaning: on the basis of sg, based on sg, by

A lány külseje alapján ítéli meg.
He judges the girl by her look.

Órabér alapján fizetnek. – I’m paid by the hour.

Az alapján, amit mondott, nem ő a hibás.
Based on what he said, it’s not his fault.

No personal forms possible.

-NAK A, NEK A NYOMÁN

It is something like a stilted postposition for saying: based on. Mainly used when you’re talking about somebody’s work, book, and so on:

Gene Roddenberry Star Trek-e nyomán
based on Gene Roddenberry’s Star Trek

No personal forms possible.

-NAK A, -NEK A RÉVÉN

It means: through sy/sg, by way of, by means of

A szakács révén megtudtuk, mennyi só kell a levesbe.
Through the cook we learned how much salt you need to add to the soup.

You can also say: A szakácstól = A szakács révén = A szakács által

No personal forms possible.

-RA, -RE NÉZVE

This postposition is equal to: in point of, by

Foglalkozására nézve erdész. – He’s a forester by profession.
Ez kedvező ránk nézve. – This is favourable to us.

Personal forms: rám/rád/rá/ránk/rátok/rájuk nézve
Polite pers. forms: magára/magukra/önre/önökre nézve

-T BELEÉRTVE / ELTEKINTVE –TÓL, -TŐL

These two words can be translated as: including sg / apart from sg

Beleértve téged is, hárman vagyunk itt.
Including you, three of us are here.

A szobától eltekintve tetszik a hely.
Apart from the room, I like the place.

Personal forms: engem/téged/őt/minket/titeket/őket beleértve
Polite pers. forms: magát/magukat/önt/önöket beleértve
Personal forms: tőlem/tőled/tőle/tőlünk/tőletek/tőlük eltekintve
Polite pers. forms: magától/maguktól/öntől/önöktől eltekintve

AMI –T ILLETI

Equivalent: as for; as far as sg/sy is concerned, regarding sy/sg

Ami engem illet, nem érdekel.
As far as I’m concerned, I don’t care.

Ami a bevásárlást illeti, túl sok pénzt költöttetek.
As for the shopping, you’ve spent too much money.

Personal forms: ami engem/téged/minket/titeket illet (!); ami őt/őket illeti (!)
Polite pers. forms: ami magát/magukat/önt/önöket illeti (!)

-NÁL, -NÉL FOGVA

Equivalent: by, by virtue of, by dint of; therefore

Nem jött el, ennél fogva nem tud levizsgázni.
He hasn’t come, therefore he won’t be able to pass the exam.

Ügyességénél fogva mindenre képes.
By her skills she’s capable of everything.

Synonym for ennél fogva: ezért, emiatt, így
Synonym for -nál, -nél fogva: ami -t illeti

No personal forms possible.

-NAK A, -NEK A KAPCSÁN

Equivalent: apropos of, in connection with, as for

Az ügy kapcsán eszébe jutott más is.
As for the issue, she remembered other things, too.

Synonym is: az ügy kapcsán = ami az ügyet illeti

-NAK AZ, -NEK AZ ÉRDEKÉBEN

Equivalent: for the sake of; in sy’s interest

A te érdekedben mondom.
I’m saying this in your own interest.

Péter érdekében tartom a szám.
I’ll keep my tongue for Peter’s sake.

Synonym is the suffix –ért:
a te érdekedben = érted, Péter érdekében = Péterért

Personal forms:
az én érdekemben, a te érdekedben, az ő érdekében
a mi érdekünkben, a ti érdeketekben, az ő érdekükben
Polite pers. forms:
a maga/maguk/ön/önök érdekében

SUMMARY TABLE FOR CASES, ADVERBS OF MANNER

-val, -vel > instrumental case = with
-nként > distributive case = per, in, by
-képp, -képpen, -ként > modal case = as, -ly
-stul, -stül > comitative case = (along) with, together with

WE’RE FINISHED WITH ADVERBS OF MANNER!!!! 🙂

Next time we’ll discuss CASES. I’ll bring up all cases we’ve learned so far and explain a thing or two about them.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Manner, More Suffixes

We’re going through a couple of suffixes now. These suffixes can express a manner of some kind. Next time we’ll learn the postpositions related to this topic.

-NKÉNT

If you return to the ’adverbs of time’, you’ll see we’ve already met this suffix. In that case, it was distributive temporal case: something happens over and over again at a specific interval. We are talking about distribution now, as well! This case is: DISTRIBUTIVE CASE.

fejenként (per head)
egyenként (one by one)
páronként (in pairs, by two)
kilónként (a kilo)

Of course, you might need a link vowel sometimes:
-enként, -önként, -onként, -anként

For páronként there’s another version: párosával.

-KÉNT, -KÉPP, -KÉPPEN; MINT

Used to form adverbs of manner from adjectives. These suffixes –nként and -ként are not the same! The word mint is the only preposition in Hungarian! The suffixes -képp, -képpen can be interchanged even if not always. This case is called MODAL CASE.

kétféleképp(en) – in two different ways
hasonlóképpen – similarly
tulajdonképpen – properly speaking
önként – voluntarily

Tanárként dolgozik./ Mint tanár dolgozik.
He works as a teacher.

Synonyms can be:

hasonlóképpen = hasonlóan
önként = önkéntesen

-VAL, -VEL

These can be used to express manner.

kettesével – two at a time
hármasával – three at a time
százával – by hundreds; hundreds of
ezrével – by thousands; thousands of

-STUL, -STÜL

This case is COMITATIVE CASE. In a proper sense, it has the same meaning as -val, -vel, but it is used to express a stronger relationship!

családostul – with one’s entire family
mindenestül – with everything, root and branch
szőröstül-bőröstül – flesh and fell

Ruhástul állt a zuhany alatt.
He was standing under the shower with clothes on him.

-BAN, -BEN

Surprising as it is, these suffixes of place referring to occurrences inside an object, also reflect a state of mind. Words combined with -ban, -ben often take the possessive endings, as well! They can be translated using the preposition ‘with’.

Örömében sír.
She’s crying with joy.

Bánatában a tóba ugrott.
Sad as he was, he jumped into the lake.

Fájdalmukban üvöltenek.
They shout with pain.

Jó/rossz színben van.
He looks well/ill.
Literally: He’s in a good/in a bad color.

Summary for Adverbs of Manner with -ly

SUMMARY FOR –LY:

1. -n, -an, -on, -en

These are standard suffixes to form adverbs of manner. Use them with adjectives according to the link vowel of their plural forms.

-they must be used with adjectives ending with -os, -es, -ös, -s!
-with some adjectives that end with ú, ű!

Examples:

békések > békésen = peaceably
szépek > szépen = beautifully
alaposak > alaposan = thoroughly
bátor – bátrak > bátran = bravely
vastagok > vastagon = thickly
egyoldalúan = in a one-sided way
egyértelműen = unequivocally

Exceptions:

lassú > lassan = slowly
hosszú > hosszan = for a long time
könnyű > könnyen = easily
szörnyű > szörnyen = terribly
nagy = big > nagyon = very

2. -lag, -leg

These suffixes are used with:

-adjectives ending with –i
some adjectives ending with ó, ő, ű
-and with some more adjectives

barátilag = amicably
elvileg = theoretically
állítólag = allegedly
ellenkezőleg = on the contrary
valószínűleg = probably
aránylag = relatively
végleg = definitely
tényleg = really, truly

3. ul, -ül, -l

These suffixes are used with:

languages spoken/written/learned by someone
-adjectives with these privative suffixes: -talan, -telen, -atlan, -etlen
-and some more adjectives

Beszélek olaszul. = I speak Italian.
Németül írok. = I’m writing in German.
Angolul tanulok. = I’m learning English.
aránytalanul = disproportionately
védtelenül = helplessly
akaratlanul = unintentionally
kelletlenül = reluctantly

Besides, the adverbs well/right and badly/wrong are formed with these suffixes, too:

jó > jól = well/right
rossz > rosszul = badly/wrong

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Manner, the Suffixes -l, -ul, -ül

GROUP 3: –L, -UL, -ÜL

These suffixes are attached to languages and adjectives with the privative suffixes -talan, -telen, -atlan, -etlen and some other adjectives.

bizonytalanul – vaguely
kelletlenül – reluctantly
magyarul – in Hungarian
olaszul – in Italian
angolul – in English
németül – in German
l – well, right
rosszul – badly, wrong

Hungarian ’well’ and ’badly’ are not irregular. More examples:

például – for example
végül – in the end; finally, at last
feleségül megy valakihez – marry him (go to him as a wife)
vendégül lát – to entertain sy at one’s table
segítségül hív – to invoke
hírül ad – to report, to send a word
l beszél magyarul. – He speaks Hungarian well.
Rosszul tanul. – He’s bad at school.
Beszélek olaszul. – I speak Italian.

No confusion here please!

végleg – definitely
végül – in the end, finally, at last
a végén – at the end
Végre! – At last!

IMPORTANT! These suffixes (-ul, -ül) are always used when someone speaks/writes/learns a language! You see the examples above.

English does not always have a preposition before languages. More examples:

Olaszul írja a levelet. – He’s writing the letter in Italian.
Japánul tanul. – He’s learning Japanese.
Finnül beszél. – He speaks Finnish.

BUT!

-Hány nyelven beszélsz? – Három nyelven beszélek.
-How many languages do you speak? – I speak three languages.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Manner, -n, -on, -an, -en; -lag, -leg

The usual method to form adverbs of manner in English is adding –ly to the adjective. Hungarian has several suffixes for that, depending on what adjective you form an adverb of manner from.

GROUP 1: -N, -ON, -AN, -EN

These suffixes are the general ones to form adverbs of manner. Important to mention: depending on what plural suffix adjectives require, such a suffix for these adverbs of manner must be chosen. I’m talking about link vowels: –an, –en, –on or –n attached to words in a vowel. Examples:

okos > okosak = okosan (in a clever/smart way)
béna > bénák = bénán (crippled; in a lame way)
ügyes > ügyesek = ügyesen (ably)
vastag > vastagok = vastagon (in a thick way)

Of course there are exceptions: boldog > boldogok = boldogan (happily)

Adjectives formed with the suffixes -s, -os, -es, -ös always take these suffixes! Sometimes, words that end with ó, ő, ú, ű take -n (keserűn), but these forms sound a bit antiquated. Besides, other words can take them, too. Not to be confused with the suffixes of surface -n, -on, -en, -ön!

haragos – haragosan = testytestily
fényes – fényesen = brightbrightly
gyors – gyorsan = quickquickly
olcsó – olcsón = cheap – at a low price
drága – drágán = expensive – at a high price

Apparently, also English has its own forms now and then which can’t be translated in the same way.

ATTENTION! There are exceptions going through a change when transformed into adverbs of manner. These words end with ú, ű.

lassú – lassan = slowslowly
könnyű – könnyen = easy – easily
szörnyű – szörnyen = terrible – terribly

NOTE! The adjective nagy means big, the adverb nagyon means very.

nagy = big > nagyon = very
nagy ház = big house > nagyon nagy ház = very big house

GROUP 2: -LAG, -LEG

These suffixes are attached mostly to words which end with ó, ő, ú, ű. Adjectives formed with the suffix -i take -lag, -leg, too.

állítólag – allegedly
ellenkezőleg – on the contrary
valószínűleg – probably
barátilag – in a friendly way
eredetileg – originally

But it doesn’t mean that other words must not take them:

aránylag – relatively
tényleg – really
végleg – definitely

Adjectives with these suffixes – that is as adverbs of manner – must not be compared at superlative degree!

Next time we’ll take a look at the suffixes -ul, -ül. Bye now! 🙂

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Manner, Hogy?

HOGY?

English equivalent is: How?

ATTENTION! How? corresponds with the Hungarian word only if you express mode, condition, NEVER PROPERTY OR QUALITY. Of course, there are exceptions:

How was your day? – Milyen napod volt?

If the question word How? requires a specific quality as an answer, one says: Milyen?

But now we’re interested in Hogy? Examples:

Hogy vagy? – How are you?
Hogy jöttél ide? – How did you come here?
Hogy megy a munka? – How is your work going?

There’s a longer version of this word: Hogyan? No difference between the two forms, but the short version is more in use.

The answers to the question could be: jól – fine; gyalog – on foot; lassan – slowly. These words are adverbs of manner. The possibilities to form them are quite a few! Besides, there are adverbs of manner representing this part of the speech by themselves (gyalog). Standard English adverbs of manner are formed from adjectives with the ending –ly: happily, mainly, and so on…

Hungarian equivalents are:
-lag, -leg
-ul, -ül
-an, -en

Next time we’ll see their use.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Manner, the Suffix -ért

THE SUFFIX -ÉRT

The basic meaning of -ért is: for, for the sake of

The same rules are valid for it as for the other suffixes. It is simply attached to a word and if that word ends with a or e, then those vowels become á, é:

alma-almáért, gereblye-gereblyéért

It also has personal forms:
értem – for me
érted – for you
érte – for him/her/it
értünk – for us
értetek – for you
értük – for them

And the polite forms are: önért, magáért, önökért, magukért

It can be intensified: énértem, teérted, őérte, etc. The forms for the polite forms are intensified in the speech: önért, magáért

Not to be confused with the verb ért, that is to understand!

(Azt) értem. – I understand (that).
(Ezt) értem tetted? – You did (this) for me?

Like always az, ez can take this suffix.

azért – for that
ezért – for this

Ezért also means: therefore, this is why
Azért also means: therefore, that is why

Examples:

A népemért bármit megteszek.
I do anything for my people.

A lány beesett a Dunába, ő meg beugrott érte.
The girl fell into the Danube and he jumped after her.

Csak érted tettem, amit tettem.
I only did for you what I did.

Értem te ne hazudj a tanárnak!
Don’t lie to the teacher for my sake.

Kettőkor érte megyek az állomásra.
I’m going to pick her up at the station at two.

Nem jött, ezért hazamentem, nem vártam tovább.
He didn’t come, so I went home. I didn’t wait any longer.

Beteg volt és ezért nem hívott fel.
She was ill and this is why she didn’t call me.