Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Manner, Hogy?

HOGY?

English equivalent is: How?

ATTENTION! How? corresponds with the Hungarian word only if you express mode, condition, NEVER PROPERTY OR QUALITY. Of course, there are exceptions:

How was your day? – Milyen napod volt?

If the question word How? requires a specific quality as an answer, one says: Milyen?

But now we’re interested in Hogy? Examples:

Hogy vagy? – How are you?
Hogy jöttél ide? – How did you come here?
Hogy megy a munka? – How is your work going?

There’s a longer version of this word: Hogyan? No difference between the two forms, but the short version is more in use.

The answers to the question could be: jól – fine; gyalog – on foot; lassan – slowly. These words are adverbs of manner. The possibilities to form them are quite a few! Besides, there are adverbs of manner representing this part of the speech by themselves (gyalog). Standard English adverbs of manner are formed from adjectives with the ending –ly: happily, mainly, and so on…

Hungarian equivalents are:
-lag, -leg
-ul, -ül
-an, -en

Next time we’ll see their use.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Manner, the Suffix -ért

THE SUFFIX -ÉRT

The basic meaning of -ért is: for, for the sake of

The same rules are valid for it as for the other suffixes. It is simply attached to a word and if that word ends with a or e, then those vowels become á, é:

alma-almáért, gereblye-gereblyéért

It also has personal forms:
értem – for me
érted – for you
érte – for him/her/it
értünk – for us
értetek – for you
értük – for them

And the polite forms are: önért, magáért, önökért, magukért

It can be intensified: énértem, teérted, őérte, etc. The forms for the polite forms are intensified in the speech: önért, magáért

Not to be confused with the verb ért, that is to understand!

(Azt) értem. – I understand (that).
(Ezt) értem tetted? – You did (this) for me?

Like always az, ez can take this suffix.

azért – for that
ezért – for this

Ezért also means: therefore, this is why
Azért also means: therefore, that is why

Examples:

A népemért bármit megteszek.
I do anything for my people.

A lány beesett a Dunába, ő meg beugrott érte.
The girl fell into the Danube and he jumped after her.

Csak érted tettem, amit tettem.
I only did for you what I did.

Értem te ne hazudj a tanárnak!
Don’t lie to the teacher for my sake.

Kettőkor érte megyek az állomásra.
I’m going to pick her up at the station at two.

Nem jött, ezért hazamentem, nem vártam tovább.
He didn’t come, so I went home. I didn’t wait any longer.

Beteg volt és ezért nem hívott fel.
She was ill and this is why she didn’t call me.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Manner, Introduction

INTRODUCTION TO ADVERBS OF MANNER

Hungarian adverbs of manner have a crucial part in expressing mood and condition, answering the question How? = Hogy?

But first let’s see another case in connection with a purpose or a reason. The base for that could be the question word ’Why?’, whose equivalent is Miért? That is, the question word Mi? takes the suffix -ért, whose meaning is the same as the preposition for.

In a word, Hungarian question words are: Miért? – Why? AND Kiért? – For whom?

If you want to say that somebody does something for a purpose or a reason, then do this.

Miért vagy itt? –Azért vagyok itt, hogy beszéljek veled.
Why are you here?- I’m here to talk to you.

Miért vagy itt? –Azért vagyok itt, mert beszélni akarok veled.
Why are you here? -I’m here because I want to talk to you.

So the question Miért? can be answered with a sentence explaining the purpose or the reason.

ATTENTION! In Hungarian, sometimes there’s an ANTECEDENT at the beginning of the sentence (in this case: Azért). This phenomenon does not exist in English. The first sentence literally is:

I’m here (for the purpose) so that I talk to you.

Whereas the second one:

I’m here (for the reason) that I want to talk to you.

Summary:

PURPOSE CLAUSE:
Question: Miért = Why?
Answer: Azért, …hogy = …(in order) to

REASON CLAUSE:
Question: Miért? = Why?
Answer: Azért, …mert = …because

So much for the introduction.

As for the following issues, we’ll learn the meaning of the suffix -ért and how to form adverbs of manner expressed with -ly in English (happily, easily…)

Bye now!

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Time, Summary

So we’ve arrived at the end of this topic (adverbs of time). Below you see a summary with the names of the cases. However, we’re still talking about TIME in the following entries, too. Expressing time, date and so on…

SUMMARY TABLE FOR ADVERBS OF TIME

Suffixes/Postpositions > Case
= English Equilvalent

-val, -vel > instrumental case
= with

-kor > temporal case
= at (five, dawn)

-ig > terminative case
= until (tomorrow), up to (the house)

-tól, -től…-ig = from…(up) to

-(o/e)nként, -(o)nta, -(e)nte > distributive temporal case
= every, each, on…s (every day, on Mondays)

óta = for (a day), since (I arrived)

múlva = in, within (a year)

közben, alatt, során, folyamán = during, in the course of

körül, tájt, tájban = about (nine o’clock), round, towards (midnight)

felé = towards morning (a period of hour or day starts)

előtt, után = before, after

-val, -vel ezelőtt = ago (two days ago)

között = between (two and three o’clock)

hosszat = for (hours on end)

-n, -on, -en, -ön át/keresztül = for (two days)

-n, -on, -en, -ön belül = within (a week)

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Time, More Stuff

…-VAL, -VEL EZELŐTT

This construction expresses a moment in the past and even determines it. English equivalent is: ago. Előtt is not to be confused with ezelőtt!

Öt perccel ezelőtt láttam.
I saw her five minutes ago.

Kilenc hónappal ezelőtt még nem tudtam róla.
I didn’t know about it nine months ago.

-(O)NTA, -(E)NTE, -NKÉNT

These express frequency, that something repeats at certain intervals.

The English equivalents are: every or on…s. The suffix -nként is used for the days of the week and periods of the day.

These suffixes can be replaced by the indefinite pronoun minden, meaning every. In this case, minden is followed by -n, -on, -en, -ön for days and –ban, -ben for year, month! See the examples:

naponta = minden nap > every day
hetente = minden héten > every week
havonta = minden hónapban > every month
évente = minden évben > every year
hétfőnként = minden hétfőn > every Monday, on Mondays
keddenként = minden kedden > every Tuesday, on Tuesdays
esténként = minden este > every night
délutánonként = minden délután > every afternoon

The questions are: Milyen gyakran? Hányszor? = How often? How many times?

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE AZ

Sometimes the definite article may assume the function of putting an adverb of time in past or future tense.

az este = tegnap este > last night
a héten = ezen a héten > this week
a napokban = az elmúlt napokban > the other day

Az este nem tudtam aludni. – I couldn’t get a sleep last night.
A héten alig láttalak. – I hardly saw you this week.
A napokban hallottam a hírt. – I’ve heard the news recently.
Majd a nyáron napozunk! – We’ll sunbathe next summer.

FELÉ

This postposition equals to: towards. You see the literal translation below.

este felé – towards night
reggel felé – towards morning

KÖZÖTT

English equivalent: between. It expresses a given moment between two points in time.

két és három óra között – between two and three o’clock

TÁJBAN, TÁJT, KÖRÜL

If something happens approximately at a specific moment, Hungarian offers more possibilities: körül, tájban, tájt.

Dél körül ebédelni megyünk.
We’ll go to have lunch round at noon.

Nyolc körül várlak a színházban.
I’ll wait for you in the theatre at about eight.

Éjféltájt szinte mindenki alszik.
Almost everybody sleeps around midnight.

Öt óra tájban érkezik a vonat.
The train arrives at about five.

IN PROGRESS

Hungarian has at least four postpositions to express something in progress, something happening during a specific moment. Here they are: KÖZBEN, ALATT, SORÁN, FOLYAMÁN. They’re equivalents to during, in the course of.

Alvás közben tehetetlenek vagyunk.
While sleeping, we’re helpless.

Evés közben jön meg az étvágy.
Appetite comes while eating. (Much will have more.)

A tárgyalás alatt minden rendben ment.
Everything was alright during the negotiation.

A verseny folyamán páran megsérültek.
In the course of the race some people have been injured.

A vizsgálat során nem találtak hibát.
No error was found during the investigation.

-N, -EN, -ON, -ÖN KERESZTÜL / ÁT

In this way, one can express a longer, more extended period. English equivalent: for.

Éveken át hallgattam a nyavajgását.
I’ve been listening to his complains for years now.

Hónapokon keresztül nem ehet zsíros ételt.
He’s not allowed to eat fat meals for months.

Két órán keresztül bámult maga elé.
He stared in front of him for two hours.

It’s worth to mention hosszat which has the same meaning, but it is used in certain expressions only:

órák hosszat = for hours on end; naphosszat = all days long

MIELŐTT

English says: before

Mielőtt megszidsz, hallgass meg (engem)!
Before you haul me over the coals, please listen to me!

SOME FREQUENT ADVERBS OF TIME

soha – never
néha – sometimes, now and then
valaha – ever (Have you ever loved me?)
soká(ra) – late
sokáig – for a long time
örökké – forever
soha többet/többé soha/többé nem – never again
éppen most/az előbb/az imént – just now
későn – late
korán – early
nyomban/azonnal/rögtön/tüstént – right away, right now, immediately, on the spot
már – already, yet (I know already. Have you arrived yet?)
most – now
ma este/ma délután/ma reggel – tonight/this afternoon/this morning
még ma – this very day

WHICH YEAR?

Hungarian has special words to express which year I will do something.

az idén – this year
tavaly – last year
jövőre – next year

Examples in sentences:

Az idén érettségizek.
I’ll graduate from a high school this year.

Tavaly nősültem meg.
I married last year.

Jövőre egyetemre megyek.
Next year I’ll go to a college.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Time, Múlva-Belül-Előtt-Után

MÚLVA

It is a postposition that refers to an event in the future. Formed from the verb ’múlik’ (to pass). English equivalent is the preposition in.

Hat nap múlva találkozunk.
See you in six days.

Egy év múlva gimnáziumba megyek.
I’ll go to a high-school in a year’s time.

-N, -EN, -ON, -ÖN BELÜL

Postposition that determines a limit in time. English equivalents: in, within. ’Belül’ takes the suffixes -n, -on, -en, -ön!

Tíz hónapon belül el kell végeznünk a munkát.
We’ll have to finish the job within ten months.

Az új autó két éven belül kész lesz.
The new car will be ready within two years.

ELŐTT, UTÁN

The postposition előtt means before, whereas után expresses after.

Két óra előtt ne hívj (engem)!
Don’t call me before two o’clock!

Két óra után hívhatsz (engem).
You can call me after two o’clock.

három év után – after three years

nem sokkal karácsony előtt – shortly before Christmas

holnapután – the day after tomorrow

tegnapelőtt – the day before yesterday

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Time, Mióta? = … óta

HOW LONG? SINCE WHEN?

This question word goes like this: the interrogative word ’Mi?’ takes the adverb of time óta, that is:

MIÓTA?

The answer is not evident in all cases: it is formed with óta, but also with the suffixes -e, -ja equal to for, since. And as usual, the definite pronouns az, ez can be paired with óta.

Mióta vagy itt? – How long have you been here?
Két hete. – For two weeks.
Három napja. – For three days.
Egy órája. – For an hour.
Egy éve. – For a year.
Régóta. – For a long time.
Jó ideje. – For a while.

Azóta, hogy elmondta…
Since he told me about…

Amióta idejött, egész nap alszik.
Since he came here, he’s been sleeping all day long.

Attention! When you ask ’From when to when?’, Hungarian can say Mettől meddig?

Mettől meddig maradsz Pécsen? – How long are you staying in Pécs?
Hétfőtől péntekig. – From Monday to Friday.
Kettőtől ötig. – From two to five.
Amíg szükséges. – Until it’s necessary.

But this is just a possibility. You can simply ask Meddig?

Another new word: amíg = until. The Hungarian ’amíg’ ALWAYS precedes the negative ’nem’, unlike English.

Amíg nem fekszel le, nem mondok mesét.
I’ll tell you no tales until you go to bed.

Meddig duzzogsz még? –Amíg el nem megy.
How long will you be sulking? –Until he’s gone.

So the Hungarian equivalents for How long? How far? are:

How long? How far? = Meddig?
How long? Since When? = Mióta?