Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Time, The Suffix -ig

MOMENTS OR PERIODS WITH THE SUFFIX -IG

Let’s ask a question relative to a specific moment:

Mikor kelsz fel?
When do you get up?

Let’s ask a question relative to a specific period:

Meddig maradsz Magyarországon?
How long will you stay in Hungary?

The question Meddig? has a meaning for time (How long?) and place (How far?).

Meddig mész még?
How far are you going?

That is Meddig? = How long? How far?

To express a limit for a distance, the suffix -ig is used, which refers to time and place, and has one form only. If you want to say ’From when to when?’ or ’From where to where?’, then the suffixes –tól, -től are used with -ig.

háromtól hatig – from three to six
reggeltől estig – from morning till night
Keddig még várok. – I’ll wait until Tuesday.
Holnaptól minden megváltozik. – From tomorrow on everything changes.
A vonat öt percig vár. – The train will be waiting five minutes.
Pécstől Pestig megy a vonat. – The train goes from Pécs to Pest.
Elviszlek az iskoláig. – I’ll take you to school.
Torkig vagyok veletek! – I’m fed up with you!

The last sentence literally means: ”I’m up to my throat with you!”

Summary: …-tól, -től…-ig = from…to…

This phenomenon with ’-tól, -től + -ig’ is called TERMINATIVE CASE.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Time, The Suffix -kor

THE SUFFIX -KOR

The suffix -kor determines a certain period. It is called TEMPORAL CASE. Not to be confused with the noun kór written with long ó, which means disease! But there’s another noun kor with short o, which means age, era!

kór – disease
kor – age, era, period
kor – preposition at

It has one form only! The question word is Mikor? = When? Examples:

Mikor? – When?
éjfélkor – at midnight
szürkületkor – at nightfall
napnyugtakor, napkeltekor – at sunset, at sunrise
pirkadatkor – at dawn
Hatkor találkozunk. I’ll see you at six.
karácsonykor – at Christmas
húsvétkor – at Easter
máskor – another time
bármikor – whenever; at all hours
ilyenkor – at this time; in this case

Of course, it can be attached to the pronouns ez, az: ekkor, akkor.

ekkor = then, at this time
akkor = then, at that time

Other periods of day or season are expressed in a different way. Either with -ban, -ben or -n, -on, -en, -ön or there’s just a word for them.

hajnalban – at dawn
délben – at noon
télen – in winter
nyáron – in summer
délelőtt – in the morning
délután – in the afternoon

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of time, Still About -val, -vel

THE SUFFIXES -VAL, -VEL WITH THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS EZ, AZ

The possibilities are two: the v in -val, -vel assimilates with the z in az, ez or vice versa.

ezzel – with this
evvel – with this
azzal – with that
avval – with that

And the plural: ezekkel – with these, azokkal – with those

According to grammatical rules evvel, avval, ezzel are pronouns, whereas azzal is a conjunction when followed with ”hogy”.

Evvel/Ezzel a tollal írok.
I’m writing with this pen.

Avval a lánnyal táncolok.
I’m dancing with that girl.

Nem segítesz azzal, hogy hazudsz nekem.
You don’t help with lying to me.

Azzal, hogy hazudsz, nem segítesz.
Since you’re lying to me, you’re not much of a help.

However, this distinctive use has faded out from the spoken language. You could also say:

Avval, hogy hazudsz…

WITH TIME

Now what on earth has -val, -vel anything to do with adverbs of time? The answer is: a lot of adverbs are formed with these suffixes.

I could start explaining myself with this sentence:

Idővel minden seb begyógyul. All wounds heal in time.

You see English says ’in time’, but Hungarian prefers ’with time’! I’m getting at the fact that in Hungarian it is possible to use -val, -vel more often than the preposition with in English. And the reason for that is:

éjjel – at night
nappal – daytime, by day
reggel – in the morning
ősszel – in autumn/fall
tavasszal – in spring
egyúttal – at the same time
idővel – in time
éjjel-nappal – day and night

It’s apparent that a bunch of adverbs of time can be paired with -val, -vel. Some of them can do without: este – in the evening; éjszaka – at night. In addition, some of them behave like adverb and noun at the same time.

éjjel – night; at night
nappal – daytime; in the daytime
reggel – morning; in the morning
este – evening; in the evening
éjszaka – night; at night

Éjszaka and éjjel have the same meaning.

Éjjel/Éjszaka a baglyok huhognak.
Owls ululate at night.

Bye now! 🙂

Suffixes / Postpositions – Adverbs of Time, Introduction

Once learned the adverbs of place, adverbs of time are nothing to make a whole new grammar book about. It’s easy to follow this reasoning since English uses the same method to some extent. And that method goes like this:

Some words can be both prepositions and adverbs.

Examples:

Az ágy fölött polc van.
There’s a shelf above the bed.

Az ágyhoz képest a polc feljebb van.
Compared to the bed, the shelf is more above.

’Above’ in the first sentence is a preposition (postposition in Hungarian), and an adverb in the second one.

However, before losing ourselves in how to use these words, let’s begin with something that doesn’t seem to be relative to adverbs of time. That is the INSTRUMENTAL CASE expressed with the suffixes -val, -vel, whose English equivalent is the preposition: with

THE SUFFIXES -VAL, -VEL

The question words with -val, -vel are formed like this:

Mivel? – What…with?
Kivel? – Who…with?
Hánnyal? – How many…with?
Mennyivel? – How much…with?
Kiével? – Whose…with?
Melyikkel? – Which…with?

Example:

Kinek a tollával írod meg a tesztet?
Whose pen are you going to write the test?

Their use requires a little more explanation:

-If a word ends in a vowel, there is no problem whatsoever.

a kutyával > with the dog

-If a word ends in a consonant, -val, -vel assimilate with that last consonant:

a ház + -val = a házzal > with the house
a kert + -vel = a kerttel > with the garden

Ceruzával írok. – I’m writing with a pencil.
Tollal írok. – I’m writing with a pen.
A feleségével táncol. – He’s dancing with his wife.
Busszal jár. – He takes the bus. (literally: He goes with bus)

Remember! The v in -val, -vel assimilates with the last consonant!

-And the personal forms for it are:

velem – with me
veled – with you
vele – with him/her/it
velünk – with us
veletek – with you
velük – with them

-The polite forms are: önnel, magával, önökkel, magukkal. Of course, they can be intensified: énvelem, teveled, ővele, mivelünk, tiveletek, ővelük

-The polite forms cannot be intensified.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Place – SUMMARY

SUMMARY TABLE FOR SUFFIXES AND POSTPOSITIONS REGARDING ADVERBS OF PLACE

Below you see the adverbs of place and the linguistic names for the suffixes enumerated.

SUMMARY FOR SUFFIXES:

-ba, -be > illative case = into, inside
movement into the interior of something

-ban, -ben > inessive case = in, inside
occurrence inside something

-ból, -ből > elative case = from (inside), out of
movement from the inside of something

-ra, -re > sublative case = onto
movement towards the surface

-n, -on, -en, -ön > superessive case = on
occurrence on the surface of something

-ról, -ről > delative case = from (the surface of)
movement from the surface of something

-hoz, -hez, -höz > allative case = to, towards
movement towards the vicinity of something

-nál, -nél > adesive case = at, by, next to, near
occurrence next to something

-tól, től > ablative case = from (near), away from
movement from the vicinity of something

SUMMARY FOR POSTPOSITIONS:

elé – (go) in/to front of
előtt – (be) in front of
elől – from (the front of)

mögé – (go) behind
mögött – (be) behind
mögül – from behind

fölé – (go) over
fölött – (be) above
fölül – from above

alá – (go) under
alatt – (be) underneath
alól – from under

mellé – (go) next to/beside
mellett – (be) next to/beside
mellől – from beside

közé – (go) between, among
között – (be) between, among
közül – from between; of, from among

köré – (go) around
körül – (be) around

felé – (go) towards
felől – from the direction of

vmn,vkn kívüloutside of sg, sy; besides sg, sy; apart from sg, sy
vmn belül inside sg, in the interior of sg
vmn alulbelow sg, sy
vmn,vkn felülabove/over sg, sy
vmn innenover sg
vmn, vkn túlover sg; beside sg, sy
vmn, vkn át through/across sg
vmn, vkn keresztülthrough sy, by means of sy, sg
vmn végigalong sg, up to the end of sg
vm menténalong sg
vm, vk ellenagainst sg, sy
vmvel, vkvel szembenagainst sg, sy, counter to sg, sy
vmvel, vkvel együtttogether/along with sg, sy

NOTE!
Abbreviation for valami (something) is: vm
Abbreviation for valaki (somebody) is: vk

valamin, valakin = vmn, vkn
valamivel, valakivel = vmvel, vkvel

Suffixes / Postpositions – együtt, szemben, ellen

EGYÜTT, SZEMBEN, ELLEN

valamivel, valakivel együtt = together/along with sy, sg
valamivel, valakivel szemben = against / in front of sy, sg
valami, valaki ellen =against sy, sg

A ruháival együtt minden holmiját viszi.
Along with her clothes she’ll take all her stuff.

Veletek együtt jöttek ők is.
They came along with you.

A bankkal szemben van egy hivatal.
In front of the bank there’s an office.

Vele szemben nem mernek fellázadni.
They don’t dare to rebel against him.

NOTE! The word ”ellen” is used with valami, valaki without the suffixes of surface! Besides, ellen has personal forms:

ellenem
ellened
ellene
ellenünk
ellenetek
ellenük

The polite forms:
Ön ellen, Maga ellen, Önök ellen, Maguk ellen

The personal forms for együtt, szemben are done like this:

velem együtt – together with me
veled együtt – together with you
vele/önnel/magával együtt – together with him/her
velünk együtt – together with us
veletek együtt – together with you
velük/önökkel/magukkal együtt – together with them

velem szemben – against me
veled szemben – against you
vele/önnel/magával szemben – against him/her
velünk szemben – against us
veletek szemben – against you
velük/önökkel/magukkal szemben – against them

All right. This is the last entry about adverbs of place. Next time I’ll give you a summary and write more things you don’t know about this topic yet.

NOTE! If you’ve learned these postpositions and their use, you’re half for adverbs of time because a lot of the postpositions you see here are used for expressing time, as well. Bye now. 🙂

Suffixes / Postpositions – more adverbs of place

PERSONAL FORMS FOR ADVERBS WITH SOMEBODY, SOMETHING

Now we’ll talk about these adverbs: kívül, felül, túl, keresztül. The rest is said in a different way or they don’t have such a form. For obvious reasons, we only deal with the Hol? question in this case. The others (Hova?, Honnan?) would not make any sense. And this is how the personal forms are done:

HOL? – WHERE?
rajtam kívül – besides me
rajtad kívül – besides you
rajta kívül – besides him/her/it
rajtunk kívül – besides us
rajtatok kívül – besides you
rajtuk kívül – besides them

rajtam felül – above me
rajtad felül – above you
rajta felül – above him/her/it
rajtunk felül – above us
rajtatok felül – above you
rajtuk felül – above them

rajtam túl – over me
rajtad túl – over you
rajta túl – over him/her/it
rajtunk túl – over us
rajtatok túl – over you
rajtuk túl – over them

rajtam keresztül – through me
rajtad keresztül – through you
rajta keresztül – through him/her/it
rajtunk keresztül – through us
rajtatok keresztül – through you
rajtuk keresztül – through them

And you say the polite forms like this:

Ön(ök)ön kívül, Magán kívül, Magukon kívül