Once learned the adverbs of place, adverbs of time are nothing to make a whole new grammar book about. It’s easy to follow this reasoning since English uses the same method to some extent. And that method goes like this:
Some words can be both prepositions and adverbs.
Az ágy fölött polc van.
There’s a shelf above the bed.
Az ágyhoz képest a polc feljebb van.
Compared to the bed, the shelf is more above.
’Above’ in the first sentence is a preposition (postposition in Hungarian), and an adverb in the second one.
However, before losing ourselves in how to use these words, let’s begin with something that doesn’t seem to be relative to adverbs of time. That is the INSTRUMENTAL CASE expressed with the suffixes -val, -vel, whose English equivalent is the preposition: with
THE SUFFIXES -VAL, -VEL
The question words with -val, -vel are formed like this:
Mivel? – What…with?
Kivel? – Who…with?
Hánnyal? – How many…with?
Mennyivel? – How much…with?
Kiével? – Whose…with?
Melyikkel? – Which…with?
Kinek a tollával írod meg a tesztet?
Whose pen are you going to write the test?
Their use requires a little more explanation:
-If a word ends in a vowel, there is no problem whatsoever.
a kutyával > with the dog
-If a word ends in a consonant, -val, -vel assimilate with that last consonant:
a ház + -val = a házzal > with the house
a kert + -vel = a kerttel > with the garden
Ceruzával írok. – I’m writing with a pencil.
Tollal írok. – I’m writing with a pen.
A feleségével táncol. – He’s dancing with his wife.
Busszal jár. – He takes the bus. (literally: He goes with bus)
Remember! The v in -val, -vel assimilates with the last consonant!
-And the personal forms for it are:
velem – with me
veled – with you
vele – with him/her/it
velünk – with us
veletek – with you
velük – with them
-The polite forms are: önnel, magával, önökkel, magukkal. Of course, they can be intensified: énvelem, teveled, ővele, mivelünk, tiveletek, ővelük
-The polite forms cannot be intensified.