The usual method to form adverbs of manner in English is adding –ly to the adjective. Hungarian has several suffixes for that, depending on what adjective you form an adverb of manner from.
GROUP 1: -N, -ON, -AN, -EN
These suffixes are the general ones to form adverbs of manner. Important to mention: depending on what plural suffix adjectives require, such a suffix for these adverbs of manner must be chosen. I’m talking about link vowels: –an, –en, –on or –n attached to words in a vowel. Examples:
okos > okosak = okosan (in a clever/smart way)
béna > bénák = bénán (crippled; in a lame way)
ügyes > ügyesek = ügyesen (ably)
vastag > vastagok = vastagon (in a thick way)
Of course there are exceptions: boldog > boldogok = boldogan (happily)
Adjectives formed with the suffixes -s, -os, -es, -ös always take these suffixes! Sometimes, words that end with ó, ő, ú, ű take -n (keserűn), but these forms sound a bit antiquated. Besides, other words can take them, too. Not to be confused with the suffixes of surface -n, -on, -en, -ön!
haragos – haragosan = testy – testily
fényes – fényesen = bright – brightly
gyors – gyorsan = quick – quickly
olcsó – olcsón = cheap – at a low price
drága – drágán = expensive – at a high price
Apparently, also English has its own forms now and then which can’t be translated in the same way.
ATTENTION! There are exceptions going through a change when transformed into adverbs of manner. These words end with ú, ű.
lassú – lassan = slow – slowly
könnyű – könnyen = easy – easily
szörnyű – szörnyen = terrible – terribly
NOTE! The adjective nagy means big, the adverb nagyon means very.
nagy = big > nagyon = very
nagy ház = big house > nagyon nagy ház = very big house
GROUP 2: -LAG, -LEG
These suffixes are attached mostly to words which end with ó, ő, ú, ű. Adjectives formed with the suffix -i take -lag, -leg, too.
állítólag – allegedly
ellenkezőleg – on the contrary
valószínűleg – probably
barátilag – in a friendly way
eredetileg – originally
But it doesn’t mean that other words must not take them:
aránylag – relatively
tényleg – really
végleg – definitely
Adjectives with these suffixes – that is as adverbs of manner – must not be compared at superlative degree!
Next time we’ll take a look at the suffixes -ul, -ül. Bye now! 🙂