Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Time, Múlva-Belül-Előtt-Után


It is a postposition that refers to an event in the future. Formed from the verb ’múlik’ (to pass). English equivalent is the preposition in.

Hat nap múlva találkozunk.
See you in six days.

Egy év múlva gimnáziumba megyek.
I’ll go to a high-school in a year’s time.


Postposition that determines a limit in time. English equivalents: in, within. ’Belül’ takes the suffixes -n, -on, -en, -ön!

Tíz hónapon belül el kell végeznünk a munkát.
We’ll have to finish the job within ten months.

Az új autó két éven belül kész lesz.
The new car will be ready within two years.


The postposition előtt means before, whereas után expresses after.

Két óra előtt ne hívj (engem)!
Don’t call me before two o’clock!

Két óra után hívhatsz (engem).
You can call me after two o’clock.

három év után – after three years

nem sokkal karácsony előtt – shortly before Christmas

holnapután – the day after tomorrow

tegnapelőtt – the day before yesterday

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Time, Mióta? = … óta


This question word goes like this: the interrogative word ’Mi?’ takes the adverb of time óta, that is:


The answer is not evident in all cases: it is formed with óta, but also with the suffixes -e, -ja equal to for, since. And as usual, the definite pronouns az, ez can be paired with óta.

Mióta vagy itt? – How long have you been here?
Két hete. – For two weeks.
Három napja. – For three days.
Egy órája. – For an hour.
Egy éve. – For a year.
Régóta. – For a long time.
Jó ideje. – For a while.

Azóta, hogy elmondta…
Since he told me about…

Amióta idejött, egész nap alszik.
Since he came here, he’s been sleeping all day long.

Attention! When you ask ’From when to when?’, Hungarian can say Mettől meddig?

Mettől meddig maradsz Pécsen? – How long are you staying in Pécs?
Hétfőtől péntekig. – From Monday to Friday.
Kettőtől ötig. – From two to five.
Amíg szükséges. – Until it’s necessary.

But this is just a possibility. You can simply ask Meddig?

Another new word: amíg = until. The Hungarian ’amíg’ ALWAYS precedes the negative ’nem’, unlike English.

Amíg nem fekszel le, nem mondok mesét.
I’ll tell you no tales until you go to bed.

Meddig duzzogsz még? –Amíg el nem megy.
How long will you be sulking? –Until he’s gone.

So the Hungarian equivalents for How long? How far? are:

How long? How far? = Meddig?
How long? Since When? = Mióta?

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Time, The Suffix -ig


Let’s ask a question relative to a specific moment:

Mikor kelsz fel?
When do you get up?

Let’s ask a question relative to a specific period:

Meddig maradsz Magyarországon?
How long will you stay in Hungary?

The question Meddig? has a meaning for time (How long?) and place (How far?).

Meddig mész még?
How far are you going?

That is Meddig? = How long? How far?

To express a limit for a distance, the suffix -ig is used, which refers to time and place, and has one form only. If you want to say ’From when to when?’ or ’From where to where?’, then the suffixes –tól, -től are used with -ig.

háromtól hatig – from three to six
reggeltől estig – from morning till night
Keddig még várok. – I’ll wait until Tuesday.
Holnaptól minden megváltozik. – From tomorrow on everything changes.
A vonat öt percig vár. – The train will be waiting five minutes.
Pécstől Pestig megy a vonat. – The train goes from Pécs to Pest.
Elviszlek az iskoláig. – I’ll take you to school.
Torkig vagyok veletek! – I’m fed up with you!

The last sentence literally means: ”I’m up to my throat with you!”

Summary: …-tól, -től…-ig = from…to…

This phenomenon with ’-tól, -től + -ig’ is called TERMINATIVE CASE.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Time, The Suffix -kor


The suffix -kor determines a certain period. It is called TEMPORAL CASE. Not to be confused with the noun kór written with long ó, which means disease! But there’s another noun kor with short o, which means age, era!

kór – disease
kor – age, era, period
kor – preposition at

It has one form only! The question word is Mikor? = When? Examples:

Mikor? – When?
éjfélkor – at midnight
szürkületkor – at nightfall
napnyugtakor, napkeltekor – at sunset, at sunrise
pirkadatkor – at dawn
Hatkor találkozunk. I’ll see you at six.
karácsonykor – at Christmas
húsvétkor – at Easter
máskor – another time
bármikor – whenever; at all hours
ilyenkor – at this time; in this case

Of course, it can be attached to the pronouns ez, az: ekkor, akkor.

ekkor = then, at this time
akkor = then, at that time

Other periods of day or season are expressed in a different way. Either with -ban, -ben or -n, -on, -en, -ön or there’s just a word for them.

hajnalban – at dawn
délben – at noon
télen – in winter
nyáron – in summer
délelőtt – in the morning
délután – in the afternoon

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of time, Still About -val, -vel


The possibilities are two: the v in -val, -vel assimilates with the z in az, ez or vice versa.

ezzel – with this
evvel – with this
azzal – with that
avval – with that

And the plural: ezekkel – with these, azokkal – with those

According to grammatical rules evvel, avval, ezzel are pronouns, whereas azzal is a conjunction when followed with ”hogy”.

Evvel/Ezzel a tollal írok.
I’m writing with this pen.

Avval a lánnyal táncolok.
I’m dancing with that girl.

Nem segítesz azzal, hogy hazudsz nekem.
You don’t help with lying to me.

Azzal, hogy hazudsz, nem segítesz.
Since you’re lying to me, you’re not much of a help.

However, this distinctive use has faded out from the spoken language. You could also say:

Avval, hogy hazudsz…


Now what on earth has -val, -vel anything to do with adverbs of time? The answer is: a lot of adverbs are formed with these suffixes.

I could start explaining myself with this sentence:

Idővel minden seb begyógyul. All wounds heal in time.

You see English says ’in time’, but Hungarian prefers ’with time’! I’m getting at the fact that in Hungarian it is possible to use -val, -vel more often than the preposition with in English. And the reason for that is:

éjjel – at night
nappal – daytime, by day
reggel – in the morning
ősszel – in autumn/fall
tavasszal – in spring
egyúttal – at the same time
idővel – in time
éjjel-nappal – day and night

It’s apparent that a bunch of adverbs of time can be paired with -val, -vel. Some of them can do without: este – in the evening; éjszaka – at night. In addition, some of them behave like adverb and noun at the same time.

éjjel – night; at night
nappal – daytime; in the daytime
reggel – morning; in the morning
este – evening; in the evening
éjszaka – night; at night

Éjszaka and éjjel have the same meaning.

Éjjel/Éjszaka a baglyok huhognak.
Owls ululate at night.

Bye now! 🙂

Suffixes / Postpositions – Adverbs of Time, Introduction

Once learned the adverbs of place, adverbs of time are nothing to make a whole new grammar book about. It’s easy to follow this reasoning since English uses the same method to some extent. And that method goes like this:

Some words can be both prepositions and adverbs.


Az ágy fölött polc van.
There’s a shelf above the bed.

Az ágyhoz képest a polc feljebb van.
Compared to the bed, the shelf is more above.

’Above’ in the first sentence is a preposition (postposition in Hungarian), and an adverb in the second one.

However, before losing ourselves in how to use these words, let’s begin with something that doesn’t seem to be relative to adverbs of time. That is the INSTRUMENTAL CASE expressed with the suffixes -val, -vel, whose English equivalent is the preposition: with


The question words with -val, -vel are formed like this:

Mivel? – What…with?
Kivel? – Who…with?
Hánnyal? – How many…with?
Mennyivel? – How much…with?
Kiével? – Whose…with?
Melyikkel? – Which…with?


Kinek a tollával írod meg a tesztet?
Whose pen are you going to write the test?

Their use requires a little more explanation:

-If a word ends in a vowel, there is no problem whatsoever.

a kutyával > with the dog

-If a word ends in a consonant, -val, -vel assimilate with that last consonant:

a ház + -val = a házzal > with the house
a kert + -vel = a kerttel > with the garden

Ceruzával írok. – I’m writing with a pencil.
Tollal írok. – I’m writing with a pen.
A feleségével táncol. – He’s dancing with his wife.
Busszal jár. – He takes the bus. (literally: He goes with bus)

Remember! The v in -val, -vel assimilates with the last consonant!

-And the personal forms for it are:

velem – with me
veled – with you
vele – with him/her/it
velünk – with us
veletek – with you
velük – with them

-The polite forms are: önnel, magával, önökkel, magukkal. Of course, they can be intensified: énvelem, teveled, ővele, mivelünk, tiveletek, ővelük

-The polite forms cannot be intensified.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Adverbs of Place – SUMMARY


Below you see the adverbs of place and the linguistic names for the suffixes enumerated.


-ba, -be > illative case = into, inside
movement into the interior of something

-ban, -ben > inessive case = in, inside
occurrence inside something

-ból, -ből > elative case = from (inside), out of
movement from the inside of something

-ra, -re > sublative case = onto
movement towards the surface

-n, -on, -en, -ön > superessive case = on
occurrence on the surface of something

-ról, -ről > delative case = from (the surface of)
movement from the surface of something

-hoz, -hez, -höz > allative case = to, towards
movement towards the vicinity of something

-nál, -nél > adesive case = at, by, next to, near
occurrence next to something

-tól, től > ablative case = from (near), away from
movement from the vicinity of something


elé – (go) in/to front of
előtt – (be) in front of
elől – from (the front of)

mögé – (go) behind
mögött – (be) behind
mögül – from behind

fölé – (go) over
fölött – (be) above
fölül – from above

alá – (go) under
alatt – (be) underneath
alól – from under

mellé – (go) next to/beside
mellett – (be) next to/beside
mellől – from beside

közé – (go) between, among
között – (be) between, among
közül – from between; of, from among

köré – (go) around
körül – (be) around

felé – (go) towards
felől – from the direction of

vmn,vkn kívüloutside of sg, sy; besides sg, sy; apart from sg, sy
vmn belül inside sg, in the interior of sg
vmn alulbelow sg, sy
vmn,vkn felülabove/over sg, sy
vmn innenover sg
vmn, vkn túlover sg; beside sg, sy
vmn, vkn át through/across sg
vmn, vkn keresztülthrough sy, by means of sy, sg
vmn végigalong sg, up to the end of sg
vm menténalong sg
vm, vk ellenagainst sg, sy
vmvel, vkvel szembenagainst sg, sy, counter to sg, sy
vmvel, vkvel együtttogether/along with sg, sy

Abbreviation for valami (something) is: vm
Abbreviation for valaki (somebody) is: vk

valamin, valakin = vmn, vkn
valamivel, valakivel = vmvel, vkvel

Suffixes / Postpositions – együtt, szemben, ellen


valamivel, valakivel együtt = together/along with sy, sg
valamivel, valakivel szemben = against / in front of sy, sg
valami, valaki ellen =against sy, sg

A ruháival együtt minden holmiját viszi.
Along with her clothes she’ll take all her stuff.

Veletek együtt jöttek ők is.
They came along with you.

A bankkal szemben van egy hivatal.
In front of the bank there’s an office.

Vele szemben nem mernek fellázadni.
They don’t dare to rebel against him.

NOTE! The word ”ellen” is used with valami, valaki without the suffixes of surface! Besides, ellen has personal forms:


The polite forms:
Ön ellen, Maga ellen, Önök ellen, Maguk ellen

The personal forms for együtt, szemben are done like this:

velem együtt – together with me
veled együtt – together with you
vele/önnel/magával együtt – together with him/her
velünk együtt – together with us
veletek együtt – together with you
velük/önökkel/magukkal együtt – together with them

velem szemben – against me
veled szemben – against you
vele/önnel/magával szemben – against him/her
velünk szemben – against us
veletek szemben – against you
velük/önökkel/magukkal szemben – against them

All right. This is the last entry about adverbs of place. Next time I’ll give you a summary and write more things you don’t know about this topic yet.

NOTE! If you’ve learned these postpositions and their use, you’re half for adverbs of time because a lot of the postpositions you see here are used for expressing time, as well. Bye now. 🙂

Suffixes / Postpositions – more adverbs of place


Now we’ll talk about these adverbs: kívül, felül, túl, keresztül. The rest is said in a different way or they don’t have such a form. For obvious reasons, we only deal with the Hol? question in this case. The others (Hova?, Honnan?) would not make any sense. And this is how the personal forms are done:

rajtam kívül – besides me
rajtad kívül – besides you
rajta kívül – besides him/her/it
rajtunk kívül – besides us
rajtatok kívül – besides you
rajtuk kívül – besides them

rajtam felül – above me
rajtad felül – above you
rajta felül – above him/her/it
rajtunk felül – above us
rajtatok felül – above you
rajtuk felül – above them

rajtam túl – over me
rajtad túl – over you
rajta túl – over him/her/it
rajtunk túl – over us
rajtatok túl – over you
rajtuk túl – over them

rajtam keresztül – through me
rajtad keresztül – through you
rajta keresztül – through him/her/it
rajtunk keresztül – through us
rajtatok keresztül – through you
rajtuk keresztül – through them

And you say the polite forms like this:

Ön(ök)ön kívül, Magán kívül, Magukon kívül

Suffixes / Postpositions – kint, bent, fent, lent and others


Here they are: kint, bent, fent, lent and kívül, belül, alul, felül. Let’s see them in details!

kint, kinn / kívül – outside
bent, benn / belül – inside
lent, lenn / alul – below, underneath
fent, fenn / felül – above, up

ki(felé) / kívülre – (to) outside, outwards
be(felé) / belülre – (to) inside, inwards
le(felé) / alulra – down(wards)
fel(felé) / felülre – up(wards)

kintről / kívülről – from outside
bentről / belülről – from inside
lentről / alulról – from underneath
fentről / felülről – from above

First of all, kint, bent, lent, fent have other forms meaning the same thing: kinn, benn, lenn, fenn. The rule is: you can choose whichever you want from the HOL? group. Then you see ki, be, le, fel can be stressed with –felé: kifelé…

And now another thing that might be confusing for a foreigner: English doesn’t make much of a difference between outside and outside, but Hungarian does! So what the heck is the difference between kint and kívül, for example? The answer is simple: kívül, belül, alul, felül are missing something! Literally something!

valamin, valakin kívül outside something, somebody
valamin, valakin belülwithin something, somebody
valamin, valakin alulunder something, somebody
valamin, valakin felül – above something, somebody
valamin innen – over something, somebody
valamin, valakin túl – over something, somebody
valamin, valakin át – through something, somebody
valamin, valakin keresztül – through/across something, somebody
valamin, valakin végig – along something, somebody
valaki, valami mentén – along something, somebody

Note that ‘innen’ can only be applied to something. It is not used frequently at all. An example can be a fairy-tale as follows:

…az üveghegyen innen és túl, ahol a kurta farkú malac túr, élt egy öregember.
…over the glass mountain where a pig with short tail is digging there was an old man.

Furthermore, you can see ‘végig’ and ‘mentén’ are translated with ‘along’. It is because the two are synonyms in this context.

In this context the above-mentioned indefinite pronouns (valaki, valami) take the suffixes -on, -en, -ön, -n, except the postposition mentén. That’s why you say valamin, valakin! They’re used both in general and figurative sense. Note that nouns followed by kívül, belül, etc. take those suffixes, too: a réten keresztül – across the meadow, a városon belül – inside the city…


The English sentences might be constrained, but I want to show you what the Hungarian sentences literally are.

Kint vagyok a kertben.
I’m outside in the garden.

Hova mész? –Ki a kertbe.
Where are you going? –Out to the garden.

Kintről jövök.
I’m coming from outside.

Benn ül a házban.
He’s sitting in(side) the house.

Lent piknikeznek a völgyben.
They’re doing a picnic down there in the valley.

Fentről kiabál a hegymászó.
The mountainer shouts from above.

Lővávolságon kívül van.
It’s out of a shooting range.

A normál értékeken belül van.
It’s within normal values.

Várakozáson felül teljesít.
Literally: do sg above expectation.

Áron alul adja el a villáját.
He sells his cottage at a loss. (under price)


Watch the use of the adverbs and observe the difference compared to English!

az országon kívül
outside the country

in and out

Rajtam kívül senki nincs itt.
There’s nobody here besides me.

Rómán át Párizsba repülünk.
We’re flying through Rome to Paris.

A repülő Rómán keresztül repül.
The plane will fly through Rome.

Ezen felül nincs más mondanivalóm.
I have nothing to say other than that. (above that)

A Tiszán innen gyönyörű a táj.
There’s a beautiful landscape over the Tisza.
(A Tiszán innen = after leaving the Tisza behind us)

A városon át megyek haza.
I’m going home across the city.

Menj végig a parton!
Go along the shore!

Menj a part végéig!
Go up to the end of the shore!

A folyó mentén horgászok pecáznak.
There are anglers fishing along the river.

Végig has the meaning of to the end of a place and also along a place, whereas mentén means along, next to. Besides, these adverbs can act like verbal prefixes.

túlcsordul  – to overflow
átkel – to cross (to go across)
keresztüldöf – to drive through, to pierce
végigcsinál – to do something until it’s done

Today I’ve talked about a lot of things, so I suggest reading this entry again and again. I tried to write it logically, so I just hope you will have no big problem with these adverbs of place. Bye now! 🙂