Verbal Noun – Condition – Határozói igenév


This is a typical Hungarian form of expressing a condition. It can be translated with past participle, or the -ing ending. It expresses a mood, condition of some sort. Formation:

High-vowel: van/vannak + 3PS indefinite conjugation + -ve
Deep-vowel: van/vannak + 3PS indefinite conjugation + -va
Negation only with NINCS/NINCSENEK in present tense!!!

Meg vagyok fázva.
I have a cold.

A bolt nyitva/zárva van.
The shop is open/closed.

A dolog még nincs elintézve.
The matter hasn’t been settled yet.

Nevetve szaladt a barátaihoz.
He was running up to his friends laughing.

Sírva mondta el, mi történt vele.
She told what happened to her crying.

Be careful! English would say ’The shop is closed”, that is it uses past participle.

Don’t use Hungarian past participle in such sentences!

Unfortunately, the media are full of this crap. They use past participle instead of the proper Hungarian condition form (adverbial noun) due to the influence of foreign languages. The most common mistakes:

1. A bűnössége még nem bizonyított.
His guilt is not proved yet.

2. …melynek ténye még nem igazolt.
…the fact of which is not verified yet.

3. Az ügy még nem elintézett.
The matter is not settled yet.

As you see, there’s no problem with the English sentences. The problem is the Hungarian sentences using past participle like English. Why is it a huge problem? Because it sounds unnatural. Typical sentences for those who think they’re really smart and they prove not to be by saying nonsense like that. We understand what they’re getting at, but the actual meaning of the Hungarian sentences above is:

1. His guilt hasn’t proved anything yet.
2. …the fact of which hasn’t verified anything yet.
3. (I would say it can’t be even translated, complete nonsense)

The proper Hungarian sentences should be as follows:

1. A bűnössége még nincs bizonyítva.
2. …melynek ténye még nincs igazolva.
3. Az ügy még nincs elintézve.

Or you can use 3rd PP form as ”passive sentence”.

1. A bűnösségét még nem bizonyították.
2. …melynek tényét még nem igazolták.
3. Az ügyet még nem intézték el.

These sentences can be said in the wrong way because we don’t really feel them as a condition, so the media make their mistakes. But take a look at these sentences:

1. A bolt nyitva van. – The shop is open.
2. A bolt nyitott. – The ship is opened.

Nobody would make the mistake saying the second one: A bolt nyitott.

1. A bolt nyitva van. > it means that it is time to go shopping, you can enter the building because the doors are open. = CONDITION

2. A bolt nyitott. > it means maybe the shop has a roof that can be opened. = The shop is opened = QUALITY, CHARATERISTIC, FEATURE of the shop

Verbal Nouns – Future Participle – Beálló melléknévi igenév


The origins of this method reaches back to the old times of the Hungarian language. Originally, it was used to express future tense, but during the centuries it had lost its true function. Nowadays people use it when something is yet to be done. It has an adjectival or subjective function. English equivalent: to be + past participle. Formation:

High-vowel: 3PS indefinite conjugation present tense+ -endő
Deep-vowel: 3PS indefinite conjugation present tense+ -andó


elolvas + -andó = elolvasandó
tesz + -endő = teendő (IRREGULAR!)
kidob + -andó = kidobandó
lesz + -endő = leendő (IRREGULAR!)

az elolvasandó könyv – the book to be read
Mi a teendő? – What is to be done?
Az árú egy év után kidobandó. – The goods are to be thrown away after a year.
leendő férjem gazdag. – My future husband is rich.


lesz – leendő > future, to-be
tesz – teendő > (things) to be done
vesz – veendő > (things) to be bought
jön – jövendő > coming, (things) to come

Verbal Nouns – Past Participle – Múlt idejű melléknévi igenév


Hungarian past participle is formed like this:

sétált – walked
látott – seen
evett – eaten


High-vowel: 3PS indefinite conjugation + -t, -tt
Deep-vowel: 3PS indefinite conjugation + -t, -tt
+ plural suffix -k if needed + accusative suffix -t if needed
If you need a link vowel: -ett, -ött, -ott


számozott házak – numbered houses
az étteremben megevett étel – the food eaten in the restaurant
az űrbe fellőtt rakéta – the rocket launched in space
múlt idő – past tense (literally: passed tense)


A meghívottak jól szórakoztak.
The invited were having a great time.

A látottak alapján nem lesz ünneplés.
From what I saw there will be no celebration.

A hallottakból ítélve kedveli Japánt.
Judging from what I heard he likes Japan.


A diákok által látogatott iskola…
The school attended by the students…
Az iskola, amit a diákok látogatnak
The school the students are attending

Az eladó által eladott áruk…
The goods sold by the shop assistant…
Az áruk, amiket az eladó eladott
The goods the shop-assistant have sold

Verbal Nouns – Present Participle – Jelen idejű melléknévi igenév


Hungarian present participle is formed like this:

éneklő – singing
járó – going
evő – eating


High-vowel: 3PS indefinite conjugation +
Deep-vowel: 3PS indefinite conjugation +


helytálló meglátás – appropriate observation
kiabáló gyerek – shouting child
szenvedő szerkezet – passive voice
bejövő hívás – incoming call

Sometimes it is not possible to translate a present participle verb with -ing: helytálló – appropriate.


A futó nagyon gyors. – The runner is very fast.
A bemondó mindig késik. – The announcer is always late.
A vevő szüntelenül panaszkodik. – The customer keeps complaining.


kutyát ábrázoló kép
a photo illustrating a dog
A kép, ami a kutyát ábrázolja
The photo that illustrates the dog…

az iskolát látogató diákok
the students attending the school
A diákok, akik az iskolát látogatják
The students who are attending the school…

a környéken lakó emberek
the people living in the neighbourhood
Az emberek, akik a környéken laknak
The people who live in the neighbourhood…

a versenyben résztvevő játékosok
the contestants joining the race
A játékosok, akik a versenyben részt vesznek
The contestants who join the race…

NOTE! You can make a present participle verb accusative, dative, plural and so on if needed.

Látom a vevőt.
I see the customer.

A tanulónak ötöst adok.
I give the student an A.

A látogatókkal beszélgetünk.
We’re talking to the visitors.

A lakók tele vannak gonddal.
The tenants have a lot of problems.

A résztvevőkben nem csalódtam.
I wasn’t disappointed in the contestants.