Word Formation – Adjective from Verb

ADJECTIVE FROM VERB

-(a)tlan, -(e)tlen = the lack of sg
enged – to allow > engedetlen – disobedient
árt – to harm > ártatlan – innocent

-talan, -telen = the lack of sg
szűnik – to cease > szüntelen – unceasing
nyugszik – to rest > nyugtalan – unquiet, uneasy

-ékony, ékeny = characterizing an action
változik – to change > változékony – variable
félt – to fear for sy > féltékeny – jealous

-atag, -eteg = characterized by action
pöffeszkedik – to be conceited > pöfeteg – conceited
hallgat – to keep silence > hallgatag – taciturn

-ós, -ős = has an active sense to it
kap – to get > kapós – popular, much in demand
fél – to fear > félős – timid

ADVERB OF MANNER FROM ADJECTIVE

-n, -on, -en, -ön = mode, condition
csúnya – ugly > csúnyán – nastily
ügyes – clever > ügyesen – adetply

-lag, -leg = mode, condition
baráti – friendly > barátilag – in a friendly way
elvi – of principle > elvileg – theoretically

-l, -ul, -ül = mode, condition
– good > jól – well
német – German > németül – in German
rossz – bad > rosszul – badly

Word Formation – Nouns from Adjectives and Verbs

NOUN FROM ADJECTIVE

-ság, -ség = collective noun
szép – beautiful > szépség – beauty
bátor – courageous > bátorság – courage

NOUN FROM VERB

-ás, -és; -at, -et = (result of an) action
gyanakszik – to suspect > gyanakvás – suspicion
emel – to lift > emelet – floor, storey

ADJECTIVE FROM ADJECTIVE

-i + -s, -os, -es, -ös = quality, characteristic
pesti – (characteristic of ) Budapest > pesties – (typical to) Budapest
harci – war- > harcias – warlike

Causation – Műveltetés

CAUSATION

The Hungarian term for causation is: műveltetés. This word is a causation in itself! Watch this:

művel + -tet + -és = műveltetés
to do + to cause + -ation = causation

Hungarian verbs are made causative with the suffixes. These suffixes do not require any link vowel.

-at, -et, -tat, -tet

English expresses causation with these verbs: to make, to cause, to get, to have sg done.

Now the question arises: Is there a difference between -at, -et and -tat, -tet? Sure there is! 🙂

GROUP 1
-Generally speaking, all Hungarian verbs
Verbs ending in two consonants
-The V-verb
> take the suffixes -AT, -ET in causation.

rakatget sy to put
mondatmake sy say
váratkeep sy waiting
öletget sy to kill sy
sejtet – suggest, foreshadow
lövet – to bomb (literally: have sg shot OR make sy shoot sg)

NOTE! The verbs lövet and sejtet are NOT CAUSATIVE verbs in English!

GROUP 2
-The verbs vesz, hisz, visz
-The -ik verbs
> take the suffixes -TAT, -TET in causation.

eszik – etet > to feed
iszik – itat > to give sg to drink
alszik – altat         > to put sy to sleep
nyugszik – nyugtat > to calm sy down
fekszik – fektet > to get sy to bed; to lay down
tűnik – tüntet > to make a demonstration
vesz – vetet > to get sy to buy
hisz – hitet > make sy believe
visz – vitet > to get sy to bring

GROUP 3
-The verb tesz
> can take both the suffixes -ET and -TET in causation! It is because tesz has two different meanings: to put, to do

If it means to put, it takes: -et > tetet = to get sy to put
If it means to do, it takes: -tet > tettet = to pretend

John odateteti Ádámmal a széket. – John has Adam put the chair over there.
John tetteti, hogy beteg. – John pretends to be ill.

GROUP 4
-Two verbs not in need of causation in Hungarian:

elejt = to let sg fall
elenged = to let sy go

Elejtettem a tollam. – I let my pen fall.
Engedje el a túszokat! – Let the hostages go.

GROUP 5
rávesz = to persuade
kényszerít = to force

A fiú rávette a lányt egy csókra.
The boy persuaded the girl to kiss him.

Emiatt a lány arra kényszerítette a fiú arcát, hogy az öklébe essen.
That made the girl force the boy’s face to fall in her fist.

These sentences show two Hungarian verbs in causation, but English can have three in the case of ’that made’. The expression ’that made’ is translated as:

emiatt = because of this

The words emiatt, amiatt, miatt can also be translated in English as: to cause sy to. However, it is not always a good solution.

His anger caused him to strangle the woman.
Dühében megfojtotta a nőt.

The literal Hungarian translation is: In his anger he strangled the woman.

GROUP 6
Verbs that definitely CANNOT SUFFER CAUSATION:
-the substantive verbs: van, lesz
-these two verbs expressing motion: jön, megy
-V-verbs: nő, sző, ró (except lő!)

IMPORTANT! I’ve mentioned before that the verb is an almost extinct verb because sír is used instead. That statement is still as true as it can be. However, when it comes to causation, rí is used in this form: ríkat = make sy cry

It’s important since sír also has a causative form: sirat = to bewail, to mourn

A szerelmes történetek megríkatják a nőket.
Love stories make women cry.

Az anya siratja a fiát.
The mother is mourning his son.

Of course, causative verbs can be conjugated in indefinite and/or definite conjugation depending on what the verb means. They can be put in past tense, conditional mood, imperative mood, as well.

When in imperative mood, the final t of the suffixes -at, -et, -tat, -tet becomes double ss!

sirassa, etesse, lövesse, tetesse / tettesse, altassa…

The person you get to do something is in instrumental case in Hungarian, that is you use the suffixes -val, -vel.

Megcsináltatom vele a kocsit. – I’ll have him repair the car.
Idehozatja velük a bort. – He has the wine brought by them over here.

Verbal Noun – Infinitive – Főnévi igenév

INFINITIVE

You already know how to form the infinitive of a Hungarian verb: menni, látni, fogni. Sometimes you need a link vowel, especially with verbs in two consonants: mondani, gyűjteni

Now we’ll deal with possibilities allowing us to use infinitive:

IMPERSONAL VERBS AND EXPRESSIONS

Impersonal verbs and expressions are to be followed by the infinitive of the main verb. Impersonal verbs are: kell, kellene, szabad, lehet. Impersonal expressions are:

könnyű – easy
nehéz – difficult
ideje, hogy – it’s time to
épp ideje, hogy – it’s high time to
jó / rossz, hogy – it’s good / wrong to
jobb / rosszabb, hogy – it’s better / worse to
tilos – it’s forbidden to
szégyen – it’s a shame
helyes – it’s right to
helytelen – it’s wrong to

Könnyű nyelveket tanulni. – It’s easy to learn languages.
Nehéz nyelveket tanulni. – It’s difficult to learn languages.
Ideje aludni. – It’s time to sleep.
Épp ideje elmenni. – It’s high time to leave.
magyarnak lenni. – It’s good to be Hungarian.
Jobb gazdagnak lenni. – It’s better to be rich.
Tilos az állatokat etetni. – It’s forbidden to feed the animals.
Szégyen ilyen ruhában kimenni. – It’s a shame to go out in these clothes.
Helyes elítélni a bűnözőket. – It’s right to condemn criminals.
Helytelen elítélni az ártatlanokat. – It’s wrong to condemn the innocent.

SUBJECT

Futni egészséges. – To run is healthy.
Reggelizni nagyon fontos. – To have breakfast is very important.

VERBS REQUIRING THE INFINITIVE OF PRÓBÁL, MEGY, JÖN

Megpróbálom elkerülni, hogy találkozzak vele.
I’ll try to avoid meeting him.
Elmegyünk focizni. – We’re going play football.
Jöttök teniszezni? – Will you come play tennis?

Word Order – Verbal Prefix

VERBAL PREFIX

You already know this:

1. The verbal prefix precedes the verb and is written together with it in normal / general statements.

Felkelek. – I get up.
Megesszük a levest. – We eat up the soup.
Kitakarítják a szobát. – They tidy up the room.

2. The verbal prefix follows the verb and is written separately from it in imperative mood, negation.

Keljek fel? – Shall I get up?
Nem kelek fel? – I won’t get up.

Együk meg a levest! – Let’s eat up the soup.
Nem esszük meg a levest. – We won’t eat up the soup.

Takarítsák ki a szobát! – They’d better tidy up the room.
Nem takarítják ki a szobát! – They won’t tidy up the room.

3. The verbal prefix is written separately from the verb if a third word is inserted between them.

Fel akarok kelni. – I want to get up.
Meg kell ennünk a levest. – We must eat up the soup.
Ki tudják takarítani a szobát. – They can tidy up the room.

What you don’t know (yet) is that certain expressions require the verbal prefix to behave like in imperative mood and negation. These are expressions with contrasted / excluding / negative meaning. Examples:

alig, aligha, kevésbé, nem annyira, kevesen, nem sokan, nehezen, ritkán, csak, csupán, mindössze, kizárólag

Alig néztél bele a könyvbe. – You hardly looked into the book.
Nem annyira eszem meg a spenótot. – I don’t really like spinach.
Kevésmondja meg az életkorát. – Few women tell their age.
Nehezen írok le ilyesmit. – It’s difficult for me to write down such things.
Csak ketten jöttek el. – There were only two people.

WE’RE DONE WITH WORD ORDER. 🙂

Mixed Verbs with High and Deep Vowels

Mixed verbs have high and deep vowels in them. Verbs ending in -ít are typical mixed verbs.

It’s the same concept as for nouns:

short i / long í / e / é + deep vowel = deep verb

short i / long í / e / é + high vowel = high verb

Examples in 1st PS:

é, í + deep vowel: szállítok (I transport), csábítok (I seduce)

é, í + high vowel: sérülök (I get hurt),  szédülök (I feel dizzy)

More verbs in -ít: lendítek (I swing), öblítek (I rinse), szakítok (I tear), ásítok (I yawn)

Monosyllabic verbs containing short i or long í are deep-vowel verbs! Examples in 3rd PP:

nyitnak (they open)
szidnak (they scold)
sírnak (they cry)
hívnak (they call)
bírnak (they endure)
nyírnak (they trim)
szívnak (they smoke sg)
híznak (they get fatter)

These rules for mixed verbs are valid for both indefinite and definite conjugation. So mixed verbs are conjugated regularly. It’s just their “highness” or “deepness” that has to be decided upon.

Next time we’ll talk about the 16 irregular verbs in present tense. Bye now! 🙂

Definite Conjugation for “Exceptional” Verbs in -s, -sz, -z

We’ve discussed verbs in -s, -sz, -z and -ik verbs for the indefinite conjugation. What about the definite conjugation for such verbs?

I write about these verbs in the same entry because as you saw they have something in common when conjugated with the indefinite suffixes. They also have something in common with the definite suffixes. And that is:

ASSIMILATION

In the Hungarian language, assimilation means that the last consonant of the first word assimilates with the first consonant of the second word and this process results in DOUBLED consonants.

For exceptional verbs, this rule is valid for the 3rd PS, 3rd PP, 1st PP, 2nd PP forms! The consonants -s, -sz, -z assimilate with the j of these suffixes: -ja, -juk, -jük, -játok, -ják. As you see, we have to deal mainly with deep suffixes (-ja, -juk, -játok, -ják) and one high suffix (-jük).

Examples:

néz (to watch), les (to peep), tesz (to put)
ráz (to shake), mos (to wash), mászik (to climb)

With mászik we also have an -ik verb.

-JÜK:
z + -jük = nézzük
les + -jük = lessük
tesz + -jük = tesszük

-JA:
z + -ja = rázza
mos + -ja = mossa
sz + -ja = mássza

-JUK:
z + -juk = rázzuk
mos + -juk = mossuk
sz + -juk = másszuk

-JÁTOK:
z + -játok = rázzátok
mos + -játok = mossátok
sz + -játok = másszátok

-JÁK:
z + -ják = rázzák
mos + -ják = mossák
sz + -ják = másszák

It seems a little bit complicated, but all you need is practising a lot and then it will be simple. 🙂

A little exercise if you feel like doing it. Replace the question mark with the right definite conjugation form.

úsz + -ja = ?

nyúz + -ják = ?

vés + -jük = ?

olvas + -játok = ?

nyes + -jük = ?

More next time. Bye! 🙂

Definite Conjugation + -LAK, -LEK

These are special suffixes only for the definite conjugation:

-lak, -lek

They are used with transitive verbs when the 1st PS form refers to the 2nd PS or 2nd PP! Think of them as:

I + transitive verb + you (sing. OR plur.)

Examples:

Szeretlek. – I love you.
Utállak. – I hate you.
Látlak. – I see you.
Nézlek. – I watch you.
Kérlek. – I ask you.

and so on…

As -lak, -lek can refer to both 2nd PS and 2nd PP, you can use the accusative pronouns if you want.

Szeretlek téged. – I love you.
Szeretlek titeket. – I love you (guys).

Of course, you can emphase the accusative pronouns:

Téged szeretlek.

Generally speaking, it is not necessary to add these accusative pronouns unless the context is ambiguous.

More next time.

Definite Conjugation – Present Tense

The definite conjugation is easier than the indefinite one. You don’t have to deal with issues the indefinite has.

SUFFIXES:

-(o)m, -(e)m, -(ö)m
-(o)d, -(e)d, -(ö)d
-ja, -i
-juk, -jük
-játok, -itek
-ják, -ik

1st and 2nd PS: you always need a link vowel for simple verbs and for verbs in two consonants, -ít and so on…

And the rest does not require any link vowel. You just attach the 3rd PS, 1st PP, 2nd PP and 3rd PP suffixes to the verb according to vowel harmony.

NOTE! The 3rd PS form has to be conjugated in definite form unlike the indefinite form.

ATTENTION! The ö link vowel only exists in 1st PS and 2nd PS!

Examples: vezetni (to drive), ölni (to kill), fogni (to take)

VEZETNI
vezetem
vezeted
vezeti
vezetjük
vezetitek
vezetik

ÖLNI
ölöm
ölöd
öli
öljük
ölitek
ölik

FOGNI
fogom
fogod
fogja
fogjuk
fogjátok
fogják

More next time.

Indefinite Conjugation for “Exceptional” Verbs in -s, -sz, -z

I wrote exceptional verbs and not irregular verbs because the verbs we’re about to learn are not really irregular. They just suffer a small change in the indefinite conjugation. I’m talking about:

VERBS IN -S, -SZ, -Z

The difficulty arises in the 2nd PS form because the usual suffix is -sz. It would be quite difficult to pronounce such words, so here is the solution:

Verbs in -s, -sz, -z take the suffixes -OL, -EL, -ÖL in 2nd PS indefinite conjugation!

Examples: lesni (to peep), mosni (to wash), nézni (to watch), rázni (to shake), tenni (to put), mászni (to climb)

Deep verbs 2nd PS indef.: mosol, mászol, rázol
High vebs 2nd PS indef.: lesel, teszel, nézel

Note that mászni is actually an -ik verb: mászom, mászol, mászik…

-IK VERBS

The -ik verbs end with the -ik suffix in 3rd PS indefinite conjugation (hence the name). These verbs have more special features:

-They take -m in 1st PS indefinite conjugation instead of -k.
-They take -ol, -el, -öl in 2nd PS indefinite conjugation just as those verbs in -s, -sz, -z do.

Examples: mosakszik (to wash), esik (to fall), öltözik (to dress up)

1st PS: mosakszom, esem, öltözöm
2nd PS: mosakszol, esel, öltözöl
3rd PS: mosakszik, esik, öltözik

The rest of the conjugation is regular.

Note that there are real and false -ik verbs. Real-ik verbs end in -s, -sz, -z: mosakszik, esik, fázik

Example for false -ik verb: tűnik (to seem, to appear). It ends in -n, so it’s a false -ik verb. You conjugate such verbs regularly: tűnök, tűnsz, tűnik…