“Exceptional” Verbs + Assimilation in Imperative Mood

Such verbs are tricky in imperative mood because their final consonants suffers assimilation with the -j imperative ending, which means that the last consonant of the verb gives its characteristic to the -j ending. The consonants in question are:

S  SZ  Z  T  J

And it goes like this:

s + j = ss > mos + –jon = mosson

sz + j = ssz > játsz + –jon = játsszon

z + j = zz > néz + –jen = nézzen

t + j = ts > költ + –jön = költsön

j + j = jj > fáj + –jon = fájjon

NOTE! Verbs in two consonants if the last consonant is -t (költ) and verbs in -ít are typical verbs for assimilation! Examples: dönt + -jön = döntsön; segít + -jen = segítsen. Also real -ik verbs suffer assimilation because they end in -s, -sz, -z: mászik > másszon; fázik > fázzon…

Let’s see some examples for such verbs:

Indefinite conjugation: les (to peep), néz (to watch), úszik (to swim)

lessek          nézzek          ússzak
lessél           nézzél           ússzál
lessen          nézzen          ússzon
lessünk        nézzünk       ússzunk
lessetek       nézzetek      ússzatok
lessenek      nézzenek     ússzanak

Definite conjugation:

lessem          nézzem          ússzam
lessed           nézzed           ússzad
lesse              nézze             ússza
lessük           nézzük           ússzuk
lessétek       nézzétek        ússzátok
lessék           nézzék            ússzák

NOTE! The 2nd PS form for both definite and indefinite conjugation can have a shorter form:

Indefinite: less, nézz, ússz

Definite: lesd, nézd, úszd
(> with the definite 2nd PS short form there is only one s, z or sz consonant + a -d ending!)

Furthermore, monosyllabic verbs in -t take -ss ending: fut > fusson. It’s different from költ > költsön!!!

I know it looks too much to you, but just keep pracitising. It needs a little bit getting used to it.

Next time irregular verbs. Cheer up! 🙂

Definite Conjugation for “Exceptional” Verbs in -s, -sz, -z

We’ve discussed verbs in -s, -sz, -z and -ik verbs for the indefinite conjugation. What about the definite conjugation for such verbs?

I write about these verbs in the same entry because as you saw they have something in common when conjugated with the indefinite suffixes. They also have something in common with the definite suffixes. And that is:

ASSIMILATION

In the Hungarian language, assimilation means that the last consonant of the first word assimilates with the first consonant of the second word and this process results in DOUBLED consonants.

For exceptional verbs, this rule is valid for the 3rd PS, 3rd PP, 1st PP, 2nd PP forms! The consonants -s, -sz, -z assimilate with the j of these suffixes: -ja, -juk, -jük, -játok, -ják. As you see, we have to deal mainly with deep suffixes (-ja, -juk, -játok, -ják) and one high suffix (-jük).

Examples:

néz (to watch), les (to peep), tesz (to put)
ráz (to shake), mos (to wash), mászik (to climb)

With mászik we also have an -ik verb.

-JÜK:
z + -jük = nézzük
les + -jük = lessük
tesz + -jük = tesszük

-JA:
z + -ja = rázza
mos + -ja = mossa
sz + -ja = mássza

-JUK:
z + -juk = rázzuk
mos + -juk = mossuk
sz + -juk = másszuk

-JÁTOK:
z + -játok = rázzátok
mos + -játok = mossátok
sz + -játok = másszátok

-JÁK:
z + -ják = rázzák
mos + -ják = mossák
sz + -ják = másszák

It seems a little bit complicated, but all you need is practising a lot and then it will be simple. 🙂

A little exercise if you feel like doing it. Replace the question mark with the right definite conjugation form.

úsz + -ja = ?

nyúz + -ják = ?

vés + -jük = ?

olvas + -játok = ?

nyes + -jük = ?

More next time. Bye! 🙂

Indefinite Conjugation for “Exceptional” Verbs in -s, -sz, -z

I wrote exceptional verbs and not irregular verbs because the verbs we’re about to learn are not really irregular. They just suffer a small change in the indefinite conjugation. I’m talking about:

VERBS IN -S, -SZ, -Z

The difficulty arises in the 2nd PS form because the usual suffix is -sz. It would be quite difficult to pronounce such words, so here is the solution:

Verbs in -s, -sz, -z take the suffixes -OL, -EL, -ÖL in 2nd PS indefinite conjugation!

Examples: lesni (to peep), mosni (to wash), nézni (to watch), rázni (to shake), tenni (to put), mászni (to climb)

Deep verbs 2nd PS indef.: mosol, mászol, rázol
High vebs 2nd PS indef.: lesel, teszel, nézel

Note that mászni is actually an -ik verb: mászom, mászol, mászik…

-IK VERBS

The -ik verbs end with the -ik suffix in 3rd PS indefinite conjugation (hence the name). These verbs have more special features:

-They take -m in 1st PS indefinite conjugation instead of -k.
-They take -ol, -el, -öl in 2nd PS indefinite conjugation just as those verbs in -s, -sz, -z do.

Examples: mosakszik (to wash), esik (to fall), öltözik (to dress up)

1st PS: mosakszom, esem, öltözöm
2nd PS: mosakszol, esel, öltözöl
3rd PS: mosakszik, esik, öltözik

The rest of the conjugation is regular.

Note that there are real and false -ik verbs. Real-ik verbs end in -s, -sz, -z: mosakszik, esik, fázik

Example for false -ik verb: tűnik (to seem, to appear). It ends in -n, so it’s a false -ik verb. You conjugate such verbs regularly: tűnök, tűnsz, tűnik…