Word Formation – Nouns from Adjectives and Verbs

NOUN FROM ADJECTIVE

-ság, -ség = collective noun
szép – beautiful > szépség – beauty
bátor – courageous > bátorság – courage

NOUN FROM VERB

-ás, -és; -at, -et = (result of an) action
gyanakszik – to suspect > gyanakvás – suspicion
emel – to lift > emelet – floor, storey

ADJECTIVE FROM ADJECTIVE

-i + -s, -os, -es, -ös = quality, characteristic
pesti – (characteristic of ) Budapest > pesties – (typical to) Budapest
harci – war- > harcias – warlike

Word Formation – Nouns from Nouns

NOUN FROM NOUN

-s, -os, -es, -ös; -ság, -ség = collective noun
nád – reed > nádas – reeds
erdő – forest > erdőség – forests, woodland

-s, -os, -es, -ös = profession
lakat – padlock > lakatos – locksmith
üveg – glass > üveges – glazier

-ász, -ész = profession
kert – garden > kertész – gardener
jog – law > jogász – lawyer

-né = Mrs.
Horváth > Horváthné – Mrs. Horváth
Kiss > Kissné – Mrs. Kiss

-ka, -ke = diminutive OR nickname
pici – little, small > picike – tiny
madár – bird > madárka – little bird
Mária > Marika
Teréz > Terike

-(o)cska, -(e)cske = diminutive
fül – ear > fülecske – little ear
– horse > lovacska – little horse

-i, -csi = nickname
Péter – Peter > Peti – Pete
János – John > Jani – Johnny

-us = nickname
Anna > Annus

Vocabulary – Advice

TANÁCS = ADVICE

You can give advice with such expressions:

Azt hiszem… – I think…
Szerintem… – In my opinion…
Úgy gondolom… – In my view…
Jobban tennéd, ha… – You had better…
Azt tanácsolom… – I advise you to…
Miért nem… – Why don’t you…
Mi lenne, ha… – How about…
Ha rám hallgatsz,… – If you listen to me…
Ha a helyedben lennék, … – If I were you…
Nem kell… – There’s no need to…
Azt javaslom, … – I suggest…, I recommend…
Tanácsos lenne, ha… – It’d be advisable for you to…

Azt hiszem, be kéne venned a gyógyszert.
I think you should take your medicine.

Szerintem, vedd meg azt a szemüveget.
In my opinion you should buy those glasses.

Úgy gondolom, orvoshoz kéne menned.
In my view you should see a doctor.

Jobban tennéd, ha nem feleselnél.
You had better not talk back.

Azt tanácsolom, maradj otthon.
I advise you to stay at home.

Miért nem mész a játszótérre?
Why don’t you go to the playground?

Mi lenne, ha ennél valamit?
How about eating something?

Ha rám hallgatsz, itt maradsz.
If you listen to me, you stay here.

Ha a helyedben lennék, megőrülnék.
If I were you, I would go crazy.

Nem kell mindjárt kiabálni.
There’s no need to shout.

Azt javaslom, nézzétek meg.
I recommend you take a look at it.

Azt javaslom, menjünk.
I suggest going. I suggest that we should go.

Tanácsos lenne, ha nem veszítenéd el a pénzt.
It’d be advisable for you not to lose the money.

The One Who

THE ONE WHO = AZ,  AKI…, …

As you see, the Hungarian equivalent is:

Az, aki…,… OR
Aki…, az…

Examples:

Aki délben napozik, az hamar leég.
Az, aki délben napozik, hamar leég.
The one who sunbathes at noon, will get a sunburn soon.

’Az’ and ’aki’ can vary depending on the sentence:

Aki embert öl, annak börtönbe kell mennie.
Annak, aki embert öl, börtönbe kell mennie.
The one who kills people has to go to jail.

Of course you can write different sentences similar to English:

The one who learns Hungarian is likely to be pretty ambitious.
Az, aki magyarul tanul, eléggé törekvő lehet.

He who learns Hungarian is likely to be pretty ambitious.
Az, aki magyarul tanul, eléggé törekvő lehet.

The person who learns Hungarian is likely to be pretty ambitious.
Az az ember, aki magyarul tanul, eléggé törekvő lehet.

The people who learn Hungarian are likely to be pretty ambitious.
Azok az emberek, akik magyarul tanulnak, eléggé törekvőek lehetnek.

Those who learn Hungarian are likely to be pretty ambitious.
Azok, akik magyarul tanulnak, eléggé törekvőek lehetnek.

Suffixes -vá, -vé – Translative Case

SUFFIXES -VÁ, -VÉ

The name of the grammatical case for these suffixes is: translative case

You already know how -val, -vel behaves when attached to a word ending with a consonant. > COMPLETE ASSIMILATION

gyerek + –vel = gyerekkel (with child)
asztal + –val = asztallal (with table)

The same happens to these suffixes: -vá, -vé. Take a look at it:

gyerek + –vé = gyerekké
asztal + –vá = asztallá

And what do these suffixes express? A simple answer would be: it is equivalent to the English preposition into. However, it has nothing to do with going into a place.

It indicates:
-a change
-someone/something turns into something else

Examples with the words above:

Szeretnék megint gyerekké válni.
I’d like to become a child again.

A hercegnő hirtelen asztallá változott.
The princess suddenly turned into a table.

As you see, English doesn’t always reflect the Hungarian method. There is no preposition equivalent to -vé in the first sentence. I guess you see the point, so more examples on the way:

Porrá zúzták az épületet.
The building has been smashed to dust.

A fiú férfivá érett.
The boy has become a man.

A lakberendező széppé varázsolta a lakásomat.
The decorator changed my flat into a beautiful place.

Kővé dermedtem az ijedtségtől.
I was petrified with fear.

Tedd magad hasznossá!
Do something useful.

Mivé változott a herceg? –Békává.
-What did the prince become? –A frog.

The suffixes -vá, -vé are not to be confused with -va, -ve for condition!!!

Word Order – Verbal Prefix

VERBAL PREFIX

You already know this:

1. The verbal prefix precedes the verb and is written together with it in normal / general statements.

Felkelek. – I get up.
Megesszük a levest. – We eat up the soup.
Kitakarítják a szobát. – They tidy up the room.

2. The verbal prefix follows the verb and is written separately from it in imperative mood, negation.

Keljek fel? – Shall I get up?
Nem kelek fel? – I won’t get up.

Együk meg a levest! – Let’s eat up the soup.
Nem esszük meg a levest. – We won’t eat up the soup.

Takarítsák ki a szobát! – They’d better tidy up the room.
Nem takarítják ki a szobát! – They won’t tidy up the room.

3. The verbal prefix is written separately from the verb if a third word is inserted between them.

Fel akarok kelni. – I want to get up.
Meg kell ennünk a levest. – We must eat up the soup.
Ki tudják takarítani a szobát. – They can tidy up the room.

What you don’t know (yet) is that certain expressions require the verbal prefix to behave like in imperative mood and negation. These are expressions with contrasted / excluding / negative meaning. Examples:

alig, aligha, kevésbé, nem annyira, kevesen, nem sokan, nehezen, ritkán, csak, csupán, mindössze, kizárólag

Alig néztél bele a könyvbe. – You hardly looked into the book.
Nem annyira eszem meg a spenótot. – I don’t really like spinach.
Kevésmondja meg az életkorát. – Few women tell their age.
Nehezen írok le ilyesmit. – It’s difficult for me to write down such things.
Csak ketten jöttek el. – There were only two people.

WE’RE DONE WITH WORD ORDER. 🙂

Summary for Adverbs of Manner with -ly

SUMMARY FOR –LY:

1. -n, -an, -on, -en

These are standard suffixes to form adverbs of manner. Use them with adjectives according to the link vowel of their plural forms.

-they must be used with adjectives ending with -os, -es, -ös, -s!
-with some adjectives that end with ú, ű!

Examples:

békések > békésen = peaceably
szépek > szépen = beautifully
alaposak > alaposan = thoroughly
bátor – bátrak > bátran = bravely
vastagok > vastagon = thickly
egyoldalúan = in a one-sided way
egyértelműen = unequivocally

Exceptions:

lassú > lassan = slowly
hosszú > hosszan = for a long time
könnyű > könnyen = easily
szörnyű > szörnyen = terribly
nagy = big > nagyon = very

2. -lag, -leg

These suffixes are used with:

-adjectives ending with –i
some adjectives ending with ó, ő, ű
-and with some more adjectives

barátilag = amicably
elvileg = theoretically
állítólag = allegedly
ellenkezőleg = on the contrary
valószínűleg = probably
aránylag = relatively
végleg = definitely
tényleg = really, truly

3. ul, -ül, -l

These suffixes are used with:

languages spoken/written/learned by someone
-adjectives with these privative suffixes: -talan, -telen, -atlan, -etlen
-and some more adjectives

Beszélek olaszul. = I speak Italian.
Németül írok. = I’m writing in German.
Angolul tanulok. = I’m learning English.
aránytalanul = disproportionately
védtelenül = helplessly
akaratlanul = unintentionally
kelletlenül = reluctantly

Besides, the adverbs well/right and badly/wrong are formed with these suffixes, too:

jó > jól = well/right
rossz > rosszul = badly/wrong