“Exceptional” Verbs + Assimilation in Imperative Mood

Such verbs are tricky in imperative mood because their final consonants suffers assimilation with the -j imperative ending, which means that the last consonant of the verb gives its characteristic to the -j ending. The consonants in question are:

S  SZ  Z  T  J

And it goes like this:

s + j = ss > mos + –jon = mosson

sz + j = ssz > játsz + –jon = játsszon

z + j = zz > néz + –jen = nézzen

t + j = ts > költ + –jön = költsön

j + j = jj > fáj + –jon = fájjon

NOTE! Verbs in two consonants if the last consonant is -t (költ) and verbs in -ít are typical verbs for assimilation! Examples: dönt + -jön = döntsön; segít + -jen = segítsen. Also real -ik verbs suffer assimilation because they end in -s, -sz, -z: mászik > másszon; fázik > fázzon…

Let’s see some examples for such verbs:

Indefinite conjugation: les (to peep), néz (to watch), úszik (to swim)

lessek          nézzek          ússzak
lessél           nézzél           ússzál
lessen          nézzen          ússzon
lessünk        nézzünk       ússzunk
lessetek       nézzetek      ússzatok
lessenek      nézzenek     ússzanak

Definite conjugation:

lessem          nézzem          ússzam
lessed           nézzed           ússzad
lesse              nézze             ússza
lessük           nézzük           ússzuk
lessétek       nézzétek        ússzátok
lessék           nézzék            ússzák

NOTE! The 2nd PS form for both definite and indefinite conjugation can have a shorter form:

Indefinite: less, nézz, ússz

Definite: lesd, nézd, úszd
(> with the definite 2nd PS short form there is only one s, z or sz consonant + a -d ending!)

Furthermore, monosyllabic verbs in -t take -ss ending: fut > fusson. It’s different from költ > költsön!!!

I know it looks too much to you, but just keep pracitising. It needs a little bit getting used to it.

Next time irregular verbs. Cheer up! 🙂

Hadd!

Before taking a look at exceptional and irregular verbs, let’s talk about this imperative verb:

hadd = let (sy do sg)

It is a general exclamation when we allow someone to do something or we tell someone to allow something to a third person. Do I make myself clear? 🙂

So it can refer to all persons, but you should consider it as a modal verb which requires the main verb to be in imperative mood. So the formula is:

Hadd + verb conjugated in imperative mood

Hadd aludjon! = Let him/her sleep.

More examples:

Hadd menjek moziba! – Let me go to the cinema.
Hadd játsszanak a fűben! – Let them play in the grass.
Hadd keljen fel később! – Let him/her get up later.

Jó ötlet a tányérba tüsszenteni. Hadd kapjunk el valami betegséget!
Good idea sneezing in the plate. Lets catch some disease.

Adj neki pénzt, aztán, hadd menjen!
Give her some money, then let her go.

This word is not to be confused with this noun: had = army troops. By the way, you don’t really have to bother about the double d at the end of hadd. You can say a single d, too. If it goes along with a verb in imperative mood, we understand it’s hadd and not had anyway.

So next time “exceptional” verbs.

Imperative Mood Definite Conjugation

Definite conjugation:
-jam, -jem
-d / -jad, -jed
-ja, -je
-juk, -jük
-játok, -jétek
-ják, -jék

Note that there is no special suffix for verbs with ö ő ü ű. Furthermore, just as the indefinite 2nd PS form can have a short and long version, the definite 2nd PS form also have two: -d for high and deep verbs OR -jad, -jed!

ÉLNI = TO LIVE
éljem
éld / éljed
élje
éljük
éljétek
éljék

TÖRNI = TO BREAK
törjem
törd / törjed
törje
törjük
törjétek
törjék

JÁRNI = TO WALK
járjam
járd / járjad
járja
járjuk
járjátok
járják

NO LINK VOWEL IS NEEDED FOR EITHER THE DEFINITE OR INDEFINITE CONJUGATION!

Some sentences:

Éld végre az életedet, és hagyj békén!
Live your life at last and leave me alone.

Ne törjétek össze az üveget!
Don’t break the glass!

Járja csak az utcákat! Előbb-utóbb megtalálja a címet.
Let him walk the streets. Sooner or later he’ll find the address.

Next time “exceptional” verbs. Bye now.

Imperative Mood Indefinite Conjugation

The general ending for imperative mood is: -j

Formation: indefinite 3rd PS verb + -j ending + suffix

kér + -j + -él > kérjél = (you had better) ask

Indefinite conjugation suffixes:
-jak, -jek
-j / -jál, -jél
-jon, -jen, -jön
-junk, -jünk
-jatok, -jetek
-janak, -jenek

NOTE! Verbs with ö ő ü ű take the -jön suffix in 3rd PS. The 2nd PS form can be just the -j for both high and deep verbs or you can use the longer versions -jál, -jél. It’s your decision. Examples:

ÉLNI = TO LIVE
éljek
élj / éljél
éljen
éljünk
éljetek
éljenek

SZÜLNI = TO BEAR
szüljek
szülj / szüljél
szüljön
szüljünk
szüljetek
szüljenek

JÁRNI = TO WALK
járjak
járj / járjál
járjon
járjunk
járjatok
járjanak

NO LINK VOWEL IS NEEDED FOR EITHER OF THE IMPERATIVE CONJUGATION FORMS!

Some sentences:

Soká éljen a király!
May the king live long!

Járjunk egyet a strandon!
Let’s have a walk on the beach.

Nem tudom, szüljek-e gyereket.
I’m not sure if I should have a child.

Next time definite conjugation. Bye now! 🙂

Moods And Imperative Mood

So far we’ve been talking about these topics:

present tense = jelen idő
past tense = múlt idő
future tense = jövő idő

And now it’s time to talk about moods. Hungarian has three moods. Here I give you the tenses you can use with the moods.

indicative: present, past, future
imperative: present
conditional: present, past

We’ve discussed present, past and future which are in indicative mood.

IMPERATIVE MOOD

First a small introduction to imperative mood.

The Hungarian term for imperative mood is: felszólító mód. As you see above, it can be expressed with one tense: present. Words in imperative mood have suffixes attached to them in all numbers/persons. Even for the 1st PS!

Some examples for what can be imperative:

Menj el! – Go away.
Hagyjatok békén! – Leave us alone.
Menjünk!  – Let’s go!
Jöjjenek!
They should come.
Ne kiabálj! – Don’t shout.

Hungarian imperative sentences always end with an exclamation mark!

The problem comes for a Hungarian student learning English when it’s about 1st PS, 1st PP, 3rd PS, 3rd PP. These forms are paraphrased in English, but have a suffix in Hungarian. Examples:

Vegyek kenyeret? – Shall I buy some bread?
Sétáljunk!Let’s walk.
Beszéljen! – He should talk. / He‘d better talk.
Beszéljenek! – They should talk. / They’d better talk.

As the 3rd PS and 3rd PP also express the polite forms (Remember ő, ők ön, maga, önök, maguk), Beszéljen! and Beszéljenek! can also mean: You (sir) should talk. You (gentlemen) should talk.

The 1st PS form is used when English says ‘Shall I…?’ and in the following situation:

Menjek veled? – Shall I come with you?
Legyek szerényebb? – Shall I be more humble?
Azt akarja, hogy legyek szerényebb – He wants me to be more humble.

Note that in the last sentence you see the 1st PS imperative form of the substantive verb (legyek). English, however, simplifies such sentences (me to be), but it would be possible to use subjunctive mood (He wants that I be…)

THE HUNGARIAN SOLUTION in such sentences IS MORE LIKE THE NOT REALLY USED ENGLISH SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD!

You shouldn’t worry about the two terms: subjunctive and imperative mood. Let’s just say they’re the same in Hungarian. So in the next entry we’ll learn how to conjugate verbs in imperative mood.

Bye 🙂

Majd + Present Tense = Future Tense

This word is widely used when refering to the future. The construction is:

majd + present tense

Do not use future tense with majd. Such a form doesn’t exist.

It is used when I promise I’ll do something or I offer something I’d do with pleasure. It has a more casual and friendly tone to it then the paraphrased future tense.

Paraphrased: Meg fogom csinálni.
Majd: Majd megcsinálom.

The paraphrased sentence means: I’m definitely going to do it. The majd sentence means: I’ll do it (sometime).

More examples:

-Kitakarítottad a szobát? – Did you tidy up the room?
Majd kitakarítom. – I‘ll tidy up later.
-Inkább majd én! – I‘ll do it!

But it also has a derogatory shade sometimes:

A leckédet meg majd én írom meg helyetted, nem?
And I’m doing your homework for you, right?

That’s all about future tense. Bye 🙂

Future Tense – fogni

In Hungarian there is no specific future tense you can form with suffixes. It is paraphrased like in English:

Menni fogokI will go

It is formed with conjugated forms of the auxiliary verb FOG in present tense and the infinitive form of the main verb.

Indefinite conjugation:
Látni fogok egy filmet. – I will see a movie.
Látni fogsz egy filmet. – You will see a movie.
Látni fog egy filmet. – He/She will see a movie.
Látni fogunk egy filmet. – We will see a movie.
Látni fogtok egy filmet. – You will see a movie.
Látni fognak egy filmet. – They will see a movie.

Definite conjugation:
Látni fogom a filmet. – I will see the movie.
Látni fogod a filmet. – You will see the movie.
Látni fogja a filmet. – He/She will see the movie.
Látni fogjuk a filmet. – We will see the movie.
Látni fogjátok a filmet. – You will see the movie.
Látni fogják a filmet. – They will see the movie.

This construction cannot be separated: Látni a filmet fogom > WRONG.
However, it can be emphased: Fogom látni a filmet.

PRESENT INSTEAD OF FUTURE

Note that you have this possibility with the auxiliary verb ‘fog’, but many times present tense is used instead.

Gramatically correct: Holnap iskolába fogok menni.
Everyday speech: Holnap iskolába megyek.

So when can you use the paraphrased future tense? More or less when you can use ‘will’ in English.
1.  if an act happens in the really far future
2. to make a promise

1. Jövő ilyenkor Floridában fogok napozni.
This time next year I’ll be sunbathing in Florida.

2. Ne aggódj, meg fogom csinálni a kocsit.
Don’t worry, I will repair the car.

Note that if the main verb is a phrasal verb like in sentence 2 (megcsinál), then the verbal prefix is separated from the verb in future tense: meg fogom csinálni

Then again, you can also say: napozok, megcsinálom in the sentences above. You choose.

More next time about an adverb we use a lot to refer to the future. Bye now. 🙂