Imperative Mood Indefinite Conjugation

The general ending for imperative mood is: -j

Formation: indefinite 3rd PS verb + -j ending + suffix

kér + -j + -él > kérjél = (you had better) ask

Indefinite conjugation suffixes:
-jak, -jek
-j / -jál, -jél
-jon, -jen, -jön
-junk, -jünk
-jatok, -jetek
-janak, -jenek

NOTE! Verbs with ö ő ü ű take the -jön suffix in 3rd PS. The 2nd PS form can be just the -j for both high and deep verbs or you can use the longer versions -jál, -jél. It’s your decision. Examples:

ÉLNI = TO LIVE
éljek
élj / éljél
éljen
éljünk
éljetek
éljenek

SZÜLNI = TO BEAR
szüljek
szülj / szüljél
szüljön
szüljünk
szüljetek
szüljenek

JÁRNI = TO WALK
járjak
járj / járjál
járjon
járjunk
járjatok
járjanak

NO LINK VOWEL IS NEEDED FOR EITHER OF THE IMPERATIVE CONJUGATION FORMS!

Some sentences:

Soká éljen a király!
May the king live long!

Járjunk egyet a strandon!
Let’s have a walk on the beach.

Nem tudom, szüljek-e gyereket.
I’m not sure if I should have a child.

Next time definite conjugation. Bye now! 🙂

Moods And Imperative Mood

So far we’ve been talking about these topics:

present tense = jelen idő
past tense = múlt idő
future tense = jövő idő

And now it’s time to talk about moods. Hungarian has three moods. Here I give you the tenses you can use with the moods.

indicative: present, past, future
imperative: present
conditional: present, past

We’ve discussed present, past and future which are in indicative mood.

IMPERATIVE MOOD

First a small introduction to imperative mood.

The Hungarian term for imperative mood is: felszólító mód. As you see above, it can be expressed with one tense: present. Words in imperative mood have suffixes attached to them in all numbers/persons. Even for the 1st PS!

Some examples for what can be imperative:

Menj el! – Go away.
Hagyjatok békén! – Leave us alone.
Menjünk!  – Let’s go!
Jöjjenek!
They should come.
Ne kiabálj! – Don’t shout.

Hungarian imperative sentences always end with an exclamation mark!

The problem comes for a Hungarian student learning English when it’s about 1st PS, 1st PP, 3rd PS, 3rd PP. These forms are paraphrased in English, but have a suffix in Hungarian. Examples:

Vegyek kenyeret? – Shall I buy some bread?
Sétáljunk!Let’s walk.
Beszéljen! – He should talk. / He‘d better talk.
Beszéljenek! – They should talk. / They’d better talk.

As the 3rd PS and 3rd PP also express the polite forms (Remember ő, ők ön, maga, önök, maguk), Beszéljen! and Beszéljenek! can also mean: You (sir) should talk. You (gentlemen) should talk.

The 1st PS form is used when English says ‘Shall I…?’ and in the following situation:

Menjek veled? – Shall I come with you?
Legyek szerényebb? – Shall I be more humble?
Azt akarja, hogy legyek szerényebb – He wants me to be more humble.

Note that in the last sentence you see the 1st PS imperative form of the substantive verb (legyek). English, however, simplifies such sentences (me to be), but it would be possible to use subjunctive mood (He wants that I be…)

THE HUNGARIAN SOLUTION in such sentences IS MORE LIKE THE NOT REALLY USED ENGLISH SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD!

You shouldn’t worry about the two terms: subjunctive and imperative mood. Let’s just say they’re the same in Hungarian. So in the next entry we’ll learn how to conjugate verbs in imperative mood.

Bye 🙂

Majd + Present Tense = Future Tense

This word is widely used when refering to the future. The construction is:

majd + present tense

Do not use future tense with majd. Such a form doesn’t exist.

It is used when I promise I’ll do something or I offer something I’d do with pleasure. It has a more casual and friendly tone to it then the paraphrased future tense.

Paraphrased: Meg fogom csinálni.
Majd: Majd megcsinálom.

The paraphrased sentence means: I’m definitely going to do it. The majd sentence means: I’ll do it (sometime).

More examples:

-Kitakarítottad a szobát? – Did you tidy up the room?
Majd kitakarítom. – I‘ll tidy up later.
-Inkább majd én! – I‘ll do it!

But it also has a derogatory shade sometimes:

A leckédet meg majd én írom meg helyetted, nem?
And I’m doing your homework for you, right?

That’s all about future tense. Bye 🙂

Future Tense – fogni

In Hungarian there is no specific future tense you can form with suffixes. It is paraphrased like in English:

Menni fogokI will go

It is formed with conjugated forms of the auxiliary verb FOG in present tense and the infinitive form of the main verb.

Indefinite conjugation:
Látni fogok egy filmet. – I will see a movie.
Látni fogsz egy filmet. – You will see a movie.
Látni fog egy filmet. – He/She will see a movie.
Látni fogunk egy filmet. – We will see a movie.
Látni fogtok egy filmet. – You will see a movie.
Látni fognak egy filmet. – They will see a movie.

Definite conjugation:
Látni fogom a filmet. – I will see the movie.
Látni fogod a filmet. – You will see the movie.
Látni fogja a filmet. – He/She will see the movie.
Látni fogjuk a filmet. – We will see the movie.
Látni fogjátok a filmet. – You will see the movie.
Látni fogják a filmet. – They will see the movie.

This construction cannot be separated: Látni a filmet fogom > WRONG.
However, it can be emphased: Fogom látni a filmet.

PRESENT INSTEAD OF FUTURE

Note that you have this possibility with the auxiliary verb ‘fog’, but many times present tense is used instead.

Gramatically correct: Holnap iskolába fogok menni.
Everyday speech: Holnap iskolába megyek.

So when can you use the paraphrased future tense? More or less when you can use ‘will’ in English.
1.  if an act happens in the really far future
2. to make a promise

1. Jövő ilyenkor Floridában fogok napozni.
This time next year I’ll be sunbathing in Florida.

2. Ne aggódj, meg fogom csinálni a kocsit.
Don’t worry, I will repair the car.

Note that if the main verb is a phrasal verb like in sentence 2 (megcsinál), then the verbal prefix is separated from the verb in future tense: meg fogom csinálni

Then again, you can also say: napozok, megcsinálom in the sentences above. You choose.

More next time about an adverb we use a lot to refer to the future. Bye now. 🙂

What’s between Present and Past?

The answer is: Present Perfect. At least in English because Hungarian has a clear concept about present and past, so there is no transition. However, English has a transition between present and past expressed by the above-mentioned tense. It is not quite present and not quite past. An action expressed with Present Perfect begins in the past, continues in the present and maybe goes on in the future.

Let’s take a look at these sentences so that you understand what I mean:

Positive:
Már két napja olvasom a könyvet.
I’ve been reading the book for two days now.

Negative:
Már két napja nem olvastam a könyvet.
I haven’t been reading the book for two days.

The positive Present Perfect sentence is translated with present tense in Hungarian. The negative Present Perfect sentence is translated with past tense in Hungarian.

Or another example:

Négy éve nem láttalak. – I haven’t seen you for four years.

It doesn’t make any sense using present tense in Hungarian because if I haven’t seen someone for years, then the last time I saw that person was in the past. The past tense is the right choice in Hungarian and note that the sentence is negative (nem láttalak).

Summary:

Present Perfect positive = Hungarian present tense
Present Perfect negative = Hungarian past tense

Next time I’d like to talk about the -lak, -lek suffixes in past tense because I completely forgot about it. That will be the last entry about past tense. Bye now. 🙂

Present Tense – Indefinite Conjugation

Hungarian has one present tense called jelen idő. All four English present tenses are to be translated with the one Hungarian present tense.

HIGH AND DEEP-VOWEL VERBS WITH INDEFINITE CONJUGATION

vezet (to drive), tör (to break), lát (to see)

SUFFIXES:

-(o)k, -(e)k, -(ö)k
-sz

-(u)nk, -(ü)nk
-tok, -tek, -tök
-nak, -nek

EXPLANATION:

1st PS: A link vowel is needed because verbs usually end in a consonant. Verbs with ö, ő, ü, ű take the suffix -ök. Deep-vowel verbs take -ok. Regular high-vowel verbs take -ek.

2nd PS: Usually no link vowel is needed. You just add -sz to the verb.

3rd PS: The indefinite conjugation has no suffix to the 3rd PS form. This form is the right choice to give the basic form of the verb > dictionary form. You just remove the -ni infinitive ending and you have this 3rd PS form.

1st PP: Link vowels are needed. Deep verbs take -unk, high verbs take -ünk.

2nd PP: No link vowel needed for these forms. Verbs with ö, ő, ü, ű take -tök. Deep verbs take -tok. High verbs take -tek.

3rd PP: No link vowel is needed. Just add -nak to deep verbs and -nek to high verbs.

LÁTNI
látok
látsz
lát
látunk
láttok
látnak

VEZETNI
vezetek
vezetsz
vezet
vezetünk
vezettek
vezetnek

TÖRNI
török
törsz
tör
törünk
törtök
törnek

These suffixes should be familiar to you since you already know some of them. If you attach -unk, -ünk, -tok, -tek, -tök to a noun, they are possessive endings. As well as the -nak, -nek suffixes have the same form as the dative suffixes. Only their form is similar, not their meaning. I wanted it to be  a curiosity, not a rule to be worried about. It’s quite smart to use almost the same suffixes with nouns as with verbs, but with a different function. Well…Hungarian is a real miracle to me. 🙂

Next time we’ll talk more about indefinite conjugation. There are a thing or two to make clear. Bye now!