Conjugation for fő and főz

It’s nothing to worry about. It just might be a source for confusion. I’m talking about these verbs:

= TO BE COOKED, TO BOIL

FŐZ = TO COOK

Only one z is the difference. The verb fő only makes sense in 3rd PS and 3rd PP indefinite conjugation. The verb főz is a regular high verb with the -öl suffix in 2nd PS indefinite conjugation because it ends in z. It can have the definite and indefinite conjugation.

FŐ = TO BE COOKED, TO BOIL
3rd PS
3rd PP főnek

FŐZ = TO COOK
Indef: főzök, főzöl, főz, főzünk, főztök, főznek
Def: főzöm, főzöd, főzi, főzzük, főzitek, főzik

Note the assimilation (as usual in this kind of conjugation) in 1st PP!

Examples:

A leves már . – The soup is already boiling.
Főnek a húsok. – The meats are being cooked.
Főzöd az ebédet? – Are you cooking the lunch?
Teát főzünk. – We’re making tea.

All right. Only a few more explanation about present tense and we’re done with it. See ya next time.

Mixed Verbs with High and Deep Vowels

Mixed verbs have high and deep vowels in them. Verbs ending in -ít are typical mixed verbs.

It’s the same concept as for nouns:

short i / long í / e / é + deep vowel = deep verb

short i / long í / e / é + high vowel = high verb

Examples in 1st PS:

é, í + deep vowel: szállítok (I transport), csábítok (I seduce)

é, í + high vowel: sérülök (I get hurt),  szédülök (I feel dizzy)

More verbs in -ít: lendítek (I swing), öblítek (I rinse), szakítok (I tear), ásítok (I yawn)

Monosyllabic verbs containing short i or long í are deep-vowel verbs! Examples in 3rd PP:

nyitnak (they open)
szidnak (they scold)
sírnak (they cry)
hívnak (they call)
bírnak (they endure)
nyírnak (they trim)
szívnak (they smoke sg)
híznak (they get fatter)

These rules for mixed verbs are valid for both indefinite and definite conjugation. So mixed verbs are conjugated regularly. It’s just their “highness” or “deepness” that has to be decided upon.

Next time we’ll talk about the 16 irregular verbs in present tense. Bye now! 🙂

Definite Conjugation for “Exceptional” Verbs in -s, -sz, -z

We’ve discussed verbs in -s, -sz, -z and -ik verbs for the indefinite conjugation. What about the definite conjugation for such verbs?

I write about these verbs in the same entry because as you saw they have something in common when conjugated with the indefinite suffixes. They also have something in common with the definite suffixes. And that is:

ASSIMILATION

In the Hungarian language, assimilation means that the last consonant of the first word assimilates with the first consonant of the second word and this process results in DOUBLED consonants.

For exceptional verbs, this rule is valid for the 3rd PS, 3rd PP, 1st PP, 2nd PP forms! The consonants -s, -sz, -z assimilate with the j of these suffixes: -ja, -juk, -jük, -játok, -ják. As you see, we have to deal mainly with deep suffixes (-ja, -juk, -játok, -ják) and one high suffix (-jük).

Examples:

néz (to watch), les (to peep), tesz (to put)
ráz (to shake), mos (to wash), mászik (to climb)

With mászik we also have an -ik verb.

-JÜK:
z + -jük = nézzük
les + -jük = lessük
tesz + -jük = tesszük

-JA:
z + -ja = rázza
mos + -ja = mossa
sz + -ja = mássza

-JUK:
z + -juk = rázzuk
mos + -juk = mossuk
sz + -juk = másszuk

-JÁTOK:
z + -játok = rázzátok
mos + -játok = mossátok
sz + -játok = másszátok

-JÁK:
z + -ják = rázzák
mos + -ják = mossák
sz + -ják = másszák

It seems a little bit complicated, but all you need is practising a lot and then it will be simple. 🙂

A little exercise if you feel like doing it. Replace the question mark with the right definite conjugation form.

úsz + -ja = ?

nyúz + -ják = ?

vés + -jük = ?

olvas + -játok = ?

nyes + -jük = ?

More next time. Bye! 🙂

Definite Conjugation + -LAK, -LEK

These are special suffixes only for the definite conjugation:

-lak, -lek

They are used with transitive verbs when the 1st PS form refers to the 2nd PS or 2nd PP! Think of them as:

I + transitive verb + you (sing. OR plur.)

Examples:

Szeretlek. – I love you.
Utállak. – I hate you.
Látlak. – I see you.
Nézlek. – I watch you.
Kérlek. – I ask you.

and so on…

As -lak, -lek can refer to both 2nd PS and 2nd PP, you can use the accusative pronouns if you want.

Szeretlek téged. – I love you.
Szeretlek titeket. – I love you (guys).

Of course, you can emphase the accusative pronouns:

Téged szeretlek.

Generally speaking, it is not necessary to add these accusative pronouns unless the context is ambiguous.

More next time.

Definite Conjugation – Present Tense

The definite conjugation is easier than the indefinite one. You don’t have to deal with issues the indefinite has.

SUFFIXES:

-(o)m, -(e)m, -(ö)m
-(o)d, -(e)d, -(ö)d
-ja, -i
-juk, -jük
-játok, -itek
-ják, -ik

1st and 2nd PS: you always need a link vowel for simple verbs and for verbs in two consonants, -ít and so on…

And the rest does not require any link vowel. You just attach the 3rd PS, 1st PP, 2nd PP and 3rd PP suffixes to the verb according to vowel harmony.

NOTE! The 3rd PS form has to be conjugated in definite form unlike the indefinite form.

ATTENTION! The ö link vowel only exists in 1st PS and 2nd PS!

Examples: vezetni (to drive), ölni (to kill), fogni (to take)

VEZETNI
vezetem
vezeted
vezeti
vezetjük
vezetitek
vezetik

ÖLNI
ölöm
ölöd
öli
öljük
ölitek
ölik

FOGNI
fogom
fogod
fogja
fogjuk
fogjátok
fogják

More next time.

Indefinite Conjugation for “Exceptional” Verbs in -s, -sz, -z

I wrote exceptional verbs and not irregular verbs because the verbs we’re about to learn are not really irregular. They just suffer a small change in the indefinite conjugation. I’m talking about:

VERBS IN -S, -SZ, -Z

The difficulty arises in the 2nd PS form because the usual suffix is -sz. It would be quite difficult to pronounce such words, so here is the solution:

Verbs in -s, -sz, -z take the suffixes -OL, -EL, -ÖL in 2nd PS indefinite conjugation!

Examples: lesni (to peep), mosni (to wash), nézni (to watch), rázni (to shake), tenni (to put), mászni (to climb)

Deep verbs 2nd PS indef.: mosol, mászol, rázol
High vebs 2nd PS indef.: lesel, teszel, nézel

Note that mászni is actually an -ik verb: mászom, mászol, mászik…

-IK VERBS

The -ik verbs end with the -ik suffix in 3rd PS indefinite conjugation (hence the name). These verbs have more special features:

-They take -m in 1st PS indefinite conjugation instead of -k.
-They take -ol, -el, -öl in 2nd PS indefinite conjugation just as those verbs in -s, -sz, -z do.

Examples: mosakszik (to wash), esik (to fall), öltözik (to dress up)

1st PS: mosakszom, esem, öltözöm
2nd PS: mosakszol, esel, öltözöl
3rd PS: mosakszik, esik, öltözik

The rest of the conjugation is regular.

Note that there are real and false -ik verbs. Real-ik verbs end in -s, -sz, -z: mosakszik, esik, fázik

Example for false -ik verb: tűnik (to seem, to appear). It ends in -n, so it’s a false -ik verb. You conjugate such verbs regularly: tűnök, tűnsz, tűnik…

Summary for Indefinite Conjugation

SUMMARY: rakni (to put), félni (to fear), ülni (to sit)

1st PS: -ok, -ek, -ök (rakok, félek, ülök)

2nd PS: -sz (raksz, félsz, ülsz)

3rd PS: NO SUFFIX (rak, fél, ül)

1st PP: -unk, -ünk (rakunk, félünk, ülünk)

2nd PP: -tok, -tek, -tök (raktok, féltek, ültök)

3rd PP: -nak, -nek (raknak, félnek, ülnek)

Verbs in two consonants, verbs ending in -ít and verbs with long ű ending in -t take the 2nd PS, 2nd PP and 3rd PP indefinite suffixes with a link vowel:

2nd PS: -asz, -esz (lazítasz, fűtesz, gyújtasz)

2nd PP: -otok, -etek, -ötök (lazítotok, sejtetek, fűtötök)

3rd PP: -anak, -enek (lazítanak, sejtenek, fűtenek)

Digest this first. Then there are a couple of things about indefinite conjugation.

Indefinite Conjugation for Verbs in Two Consonants – Present Tense

You already know that verbs with indefinite conjugation take the 2nd PS, 2nd PP and 3rd PP suffixes with no link vowel.

lépsz, léptek, lépnek
futsz, futtok, futnak
ütsz, üttök, ütnek
szedsz, szedtek, szednek

and so on…

The problem arises when a verb ends in two consonants. Then it needs a link vowel. With such verbs, these suffixes are fitted with a link vowel: 2nd PS, 2nd PP, 3rd PP. And they look like this:

2nd PS: -esz, -asz
2nd PP: -etek, -ötök, -otok
3rd PP: -enek, -anak

The rest of the indefinite conjugation (1st PS, 1st PP, 3rd PS) is the same.

Examples:

Deep verb > mondani (to say)
mondok, mondasz, mond, mondunk, mond(o)tok, mondanak

High verb > menteni (to save)
mentek, mentesz, ment, mentünk, mentetek, mentenek

High verb with ö, ő, ü, ű > gyűjteni (to collect)
gyűjtök, gyűjtesz, gyűjt, gyűjtünk, gyűjtötök, gyűjtenek

Generally speaking of verbs in two consonants, I recommend you use a 2nd PP suffix with a  link vowel except with the verb mondani.

This rule is also valid for monosyllabic verbs with long ű ending in -t and verbs ending with the suffix -ít:

fűt (to heat), hűt (to cool), műt (to operate on), segít (to help), lazít (to relax)

2nd PS: fűtesz, hűtesz, műtesz, segítesz, lazítasz
2nd PP: fűtötök, hűtötök, műtötök, segítetek, lazítotok
3rd PP: fűtenek, hűtenek, műtenek, segítenek, lazítanak

Next time we’ll take a look at the indefinite conjugation. Bye 🙂

Present Tense – Indefinite Conjugation

Hungarian has one present tense called jelen idő. All four English present tenses are to be translated with the one Hungarian present tense.

HIGH AND DEEP-VOWEL VERBS WITH INDEFINITE CONJUGATION

vezet (to drive), tör (to break), lát (to see)

SUFFIXES:

-(o)k, -(e)k, -(ö)k
-sz

-(u)nk, -(ü)nk
-tok, -tek, -tök
-nak, -nek

EXPLANATION:

1st PS: A link vowel is needed because verbs usually end in a consonant. Verbs with ö, ő, ü, ű take the suffix -ök. Deep-vowel verbs take -ok. Regular high-vowel verbs take -ek.

2nd PS: Usually no link vowel is needed. You just add -sz to the verb.

3rd PS: The indefinite conjugation has no suffix to the 3rd PS form. This form is the right choice to give the basic form of the verb > dictionary form. You just remove the -ni infinitive ending and you have this 3rd PS form.

1st PP: Link vowels are needed. Deep verbs take -unk, high verbs take -ünk.

2nd PP: No link vowel needed for these forms. Verbs with ö, ő, ü, ű take -tök. Deep verbs take -tok. High verbs take -tek.

3rd PP: No link vowel is needed. Just add -nak to deep verbs and -nek to high verbs.

LÁTNI
látok
látsz
lát
látunk
láttok
látnak

VEZETNI
vezetek
vezetsz
vezet
vezetünk
vezettek
vezetnek

TÖRNI
török
törsz
tör
törünk
törtök
törnek

These suffixes should be familiar to you since you already know some of them. If you attach -unk, -ünk, -tok, -tek, -tök to a noun, they are possessive endings. As well as the -nak, -nek suffixes have the same form as the dative suffixes. Only their form is similar, not their meaning. I wanted it to be  a curiosity, not a rule to be worried about. It’s quite smart to use almost the same suffixes with nouns as with verbs, but with a different function. Well…Hungarian is a real miracle to me. 🙂

Next time we’ll talk more about indefinite conjugation. There are a thing or two to make clear. Bye now!

The Difference between Definite and Indefinite Conjugation

I’m trying to give you the simplest explanation ever. Here it is:

Definite conjugation: I see the tree. – Látom a fát.

Indefinite conjugation: I see a tree. – Látok egy fát.

The definite conjugation requires verbs conjugated with the definite suffixes, while the indefinite conjugation requires verbs conjugated with the indefinite suffixes. And what’s the difference?

If you talk about a specific/definite thing/person, you conjugate the verb with the definite suffixes. If you talk about an indefinite/unknown thing/person, you conjugate the verb with the indefinite suffixes.

Here’s the key to know when you should use one or the other:

DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLES!

Take a look at the definite example: Látom a fát. You see the definite article, which means I see a definite tree. I know exactly what tree I’m talking about.

Take a look at the indefinite example: Látok egy fát. You see the indefinite article, which means I see a tree of some sort. I don’t know what tree it is. I’ve never seen it before.

NOTE! Purely intransitive verbs cannot be conjugated with the definite suffixes. Such verbs express existence or motion: van (to be), megy (to go), jön (to come)…

It is a vital grammatical rule because you can’t avoid using it!

WHAT IF THERE IS NO DEFINITE OR INDEFINITE ARTICLE IN THE SENTENCE?

USE THE INDEFINITE CONJUGATION IN THESE CASES:

– If there is no article at all, apply the indefinite conjugation.

Indefinite numerals and indefinite pronouns also cause the verb to be conjugated with the indefinite suffixes.

– This rule is also visible if the noun is plural: Fákat látok. – I see trees. It is because the indefinite article is not used in the plural. If it is expressed with néhány (some), that’s no problem because it is an indefinite numeral!

USE THE DEFINITE CONJUGATION IN THESE CASES:

The demonstrative pronouns require the verb to be conjugated with the definite suffixes given the fact that those pronouns refer to something specific/definite.

Proper names (John, David, Bugs Bunny…) also need the definite conjugation since names already refer to a specific/definite person.

More examples:

Nézem a lányt. – I‘m watching the girl.
Nézek egy lányt. – I‘m watching a girl.

Azt a lányt nézik. – They‘re watching that girl.
Sok lányt néznek. – They‘re watching a lot of girls.

A fiúkat szereti. – She loves the boys.
Fiúkat szeret. – She loves boys.
Néhány fiút szeret. – She loves some boys.
Sehány fiút nem szeret. – She doesn’t love any boys.

NOTE! The nouns in such sentences are in the accusative case because follow/precede a transitive verb! (Remember the accusative case: Látom a folyót.)

Besides, different pieces of information in a conversation may allude to something determined or undetermined and then the answer has to agree with it.

In the following examples, the stress is on the verb. What is important is whether I’m watching the/a girl or I’m doing something else with her. To makes things simple, I’ll use the Present Simple Tense in English.

-Nézed a lányt? -Igen, nézem (őt).
-Do you watch the girl? -Yes, I watch her.

-Nézel egy lányt? -Igen, nézek (egyet).
-Do you watch a girl? -Yes, I watch one.

Next time, we’ll finally get to how to conjugate verbs. Bye now! 🙂