Indefinite Conjugation for Verbs in Two Consonants – Present Tense

You already know that verbs with indefinite conjugation take the 2nd PS, 2nd PP and 3rd PP suffixes with no link vowel.

lépsz, léptek, lépnek
futsz, futtok, futnak
ütsz, üttök, ütnek
szedsz, szedtek, szednek

and so on…

The problem arises when a verb ends in two consonants. Then it needs a link vowel. With such verbs, these suffixes are fitted with a link vowel: 2nd PS, 2nd PP, 3rd PP. And they look like this:

2nd PS: -esz, -asz
2nd PP: -etek, -ötök, -otok
3rd PP: -enek, -anak

The rest of the indefinite conjugation (1st PS, 1st PP, 3rd PS) is the same.

Examples:

Deep verb > mondani (to say)
mondok, mondasz, mond, mondunk, mond(o)tok, mondanak

High verb > menteni (to save)
mentek, mentesz, ment, mentünk, mentetek, mentenek

High verb with ö, ő, ü, ű > gyűjteni (to collect)
gyűjtök, gyűjtesz, gyűjt, gyűjtünk, gyűjtötök, gyűjtenek

Generally speaking of verbs in two consonants, I recommend you use a 2nd PP suffix with a  link vowel except with the verb mondani.

This rule is also valid for monosyllabic verbs with long ű ending in -t and verbs ending with the suffix -ít:

fűt (to heat), hűt (to cool), műt (to operate on), segít (to help), lazít (to relax)

2nd PS: fűtesz, hűtesz, műtesz, segítesz, lazítasz
2nd PP: fűtötök, hűtötök, műtötök, segítetek, lazítotok
3rd PP: fűtenek, hűtenek, műtenek, segítenek, lazítanak

Next time we’ll take a look at the indefinite conjugation. Bye 🙂

Present Tense – Indefinite Conjugation

Hungarian has one present tense called jelen idő. All four English present tenses are to be translated with the one Hungarian present tense.

HIGH AND DEEP-VOWEL VERBS WITH INDEFINITE CONJUGATION

vezet (to drive), tör (to break), lát (to see)

SUFFIXES:

-(o)k, -(e)k, -(ö)k
-sz

-(u)nk, -(ü)nk
-tok, -tek, -tök
-nak, -nek

EXPLANATION:

1st PS: A link vowel is needed because verbs usually end in a consonant. Verbs with ö, ő, ü, ű take the suffix -ök. Deep-vowel verbs take -ok. Regular high-vowel verbs take -ek.

2nd PS: Usually no link vowel is needed. You just add -sz to the verb.

3rd PS: The indefinite conjugation has no suffix to the 3rd PS form. This form is the right choice to give the basic form of the verb > dictionary form. You just remove the -ni infinitive ending and you have this 3rd PS form.

1st PP: Link vowels are needed. Deep verbs take -unk, high verbs take -ünk.

2nd PP: No link vowel needed for these forms. Verbs with ö, ő, ü, ű take -tök. Deep verbs take -tok. High verbs take -tek.

3rd PP: No link vowel is needed. Just add -nak to deep verbs and -nek to high verbs.

LÁTNI
látok
látsz
lát
látunk
láttok
látnak

VEZETNI
vezetek
vezetsz
vezet
vezetünk
vezettek
vezetnek

TÖRNI
török
törsz
tör
törünk
törtök
törnek

These suffixes should be familiar to you since you already know some of them. If you attach -unk, -ünk, -tok, -tek, -tök to a noun, they are possessive endings. As well as the -nak, -nek suffixes have the same form as the dative suffixes. Only their form is similar, not their meaning. I wanted it to be  a curiosity, not a rule to be worried about. It’s quite smart to use almost the same suffixes with nouns as with verbs, but with a different function. Well…Hungarian is a real miracle to me. 🙂

Next time we’ll talk more about indefinite conjugation. There are a thing or two to make clear. Bye now!

The Difference between Definite and Indefinite Conjugation

I’m trying to give you the simplest explanation ever. Here it is:

Definite conjugation: I see the tree. – Látom a fát.

Indefinite conjugation: I see a tree. – Látok egy fát.

The definite conjugation requires verbs conjugated with the definite suffixes, while the indefinite conjugation requires verbs conjugated with the indefinite suffixes. And what’s the difference?

If you talk about a specific/definite thing/person, you conjugate the verb with the definite suffixes. If you talk about an indefinite/unknown thing/person, you conjugate the verb with the indefinite suffixes.

Here’s the key to know when you should use one or the other:

DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLES!

Take a look at the definite example: Látom a fát. You see the definite article, which means I see a definite tree. I know exactly what tree I’m talking about.

Take a look at the indefinite example: Látok egy fát. You see the indefinite article, which means I see a tree of some sort. I don’t know what tree it is. I’ve never seen it before.

NOTE! Purely intransitive verbs cannot be conjugated with the definite suffixes. Such verbs express existence or motion: van (to be), megy (to go), jön (to come)…

It is a vital grammatical rule because you can’t avoid using it!

WHAT IF THERE IS NO DEFINITE OR INDEFINITE ARTICLE IN THE SENTENCE?

USE THE INDEFINITE CONJUGATION IN THESE CASES:

– If there is no article at all, apply the indefinite conjugation.

Indefinite numerals and indefinite pronouns also cause the verb to be conjugated with the indefinite suffixes.

– This rule is also visible if the noun is plural: Fákat látok. – I see trees. It is because the indefinite article is not used in the plural. If it is expressed with néhány (some), that’s no problem because it is an indefinite numeral!

USE THE DEFINITE CONJUGATION IN THESE CASES:

The demonstrative pronouns require the verb to be conjugated with the definite suffixes given the fact that those pronouns refer to something specific/definite.

Proper names (John, David, Bugs Bunny…) also need the definite conjugation since names already refer to a specific/definite person.

More examples:

Nézem a lányt. – I‘m watching the girl.
Nézek egy lányt. – I‘m watching a girl.

Azt a lányt nézik. – They‘re watching that girl.
Sok lányt néznek. – They‘re watching a lot of girls.

A fiúkat szereti. – She loves the boys.
Fiúkat szeret. – She loves boys.
Néhány fiút szeret. – She loves some boys.
Sehány fiút nem szeret. – She doesn’t love any boys.

NOTE! The nouns in such sentences are in the accusative case because follow/precede a transitive verb! (Remember the accusative case: Látom a folyót.)

Besides, different pieces of information in a conversation may allude to something determined or undetermined and then the answer has to agree with it.

In the following examples, the stress is on the verb. What is important is whether I’m watching the/a girl or I’m doing something else with her. To makes things simple, I’ll use the Present Simple Tense in English.

-Nézed a lányt? -Igen, nézem (őt).
-Do you watch the girl? -Yes, I watch her.

-Nézel egy lányt? -Igen, nézek (egyet).
-Do you watch a girl? -Yes, I watch one.

Next time, we’ll finally get to how to conjugate verbs. Bye now! 🙂

Verbs and Tenses

All right. We’ll be discussing verbs and tenses from now on. It is an extensive topic, so maybe I’ll come up with some other topic between present and past, conditional and imperative, and so on…

V E R B S

Verbs are words expressing action, occurrence, state of being.

The Hungarian word is: ige.

Characteristics of Hungarian verbs:

– Hungarian verbs are high or deep-vowel words. (or mixed which is finally high or deep)

– There are two tenses: present, past

– The future tense is paraphrased like in English, but more often it is simply expressed with present tense. Because of that, it is not really considered a different tense.

– There is only one present, one past and one future tense.

– There are three moods: indicative, imperative, present/past conditional

SUMMARY:

Indicative mood: present, past, future
Imperative mood: present
Conditional mood: present, past

– Hungarian verbs have a definite and indefinite conjugation system.

Suffixes are attached to the verb in all numbers/persons, therefore it is unnecessary to use the personal pronouns unless for putting emphasis on the person.

– Verbs are transitive, intransitive, impersonal.

– The Hungarian infinitive form can be conjugated when teaming up with an impersonal verb.

-The Hungarian verbal nouns are: infinitive, present/past participle and future participle

I N F I N I T I V E – FŐNÉVI IGENÉV

English verbs can be put in the infinitive form like this:

to be, to dream

Hungarian verbs also have an infinitive form indicated by the suffix: -ni. Examples:

lenni (to be), álmodni (to dream), ülni (to sit), repülni (to fly), örülni (to be delighted), állni (to stand)

Verbs ending in two consonants take the infinitive with a link vowel. The link vowels are: a for deep, e for high. Examples:

hall > hallani (to hear)
ment > menteni (to save)
mond > mondani (to say)
gyűjt > gyűjteni (to collect)

It is important to mention that entries in a dictionary give Hungarian verbs in the 3rd PS indefinite conjugation form. Logically enough, since this form has no suffix to it, so it can be considered the basic form of the verb.

And there are only a few verbs with an irregular infinitive form. These are the so-called -nni verbs. You already know: lenni. Let’s the others.

menni (to go), jönni (to come), enni (to eat), inni (to drink)
tenni (to put), venni (to buy), hinni (to believe), vinni (to bring)

Next time I’ll explain the difference between definite and indefinite conjugation. Digest so much for now. 🙂

Bye.