Suffixes / Adverbs of Place – Occurrences Next To An Object

OCCURRENCE NEXT TO AN OBJECT

Generally speaking, these suffixes can be expressed with the English adverbs next to sg, near sg, beside sg. Watch the examples!

Hol? = -nál, -nél (> by, at, next to)
Hova? = -hoz, -hez, -höz (> to, towards)
Honnan? = -tól, -től (> from, from the vicinity of)

Examples for deep and high words:

a háznál – next to the house
a házhoz – to(wards) the house
a háztól – from the house

a kertésznél – at the gardener’s place
a kertészhez – to the gardener
a kertésztől – from the gardener

English is more complicated when Hungarian simply says -nál, -nél. Compare:

Az ügyvédnél vagyok. – I’m at the lawyer’s place.
A barátomnál vagyok. – I’m at my friend’s place. / I’m with my friend.

The vowels a, e become á, é in those words: fa, gereblye

a fánál – next to the tree
a fához – to the tree
a fától – from the tree

a gereblyénél – next to/by the rake
a gereblyéhez – to the rake
a gereblyétől – from the rake

Examples in sentences:

A háznál állok. – I’m standing by/next to the house.
A házhoz megyek. – I’m going to the house.
A háztól eljövök. – I’m coming from the house.

A kertésznél vagyok. – I’m with the gardener/at the gardener’s place.
A kertészhez megyek. – I’m going to the gardener.
A kertésztől jövök. – I’m coming from the gardener.

A fánál piknikezünk. – We’re doing a picnic by the tree.
A fához fut. – He runs up to the tree.
A fától elfut a bogár. – The bug runs away from the tree.

A gereblyénél vakond túr. – The mole digs near the rake.
A gereblyéhez fut a vakond. – The mole runs up to the rake.
A gereblyétől menekül a vakond. – The mole runs away from the rake.

The difference between -nál, -nél and -hoz, -hez, -höz:

Az orvosnál vagyok. – I’m with the doctor/at the doctor‘s place.
Az orvoshoz megyek. – I’m going to the doctor.

Summary for suffixes near the object:
-hoz, -hez, -höz = towards a direction
-nál, -nél = position > something is to be found somewhere
-tól, -től = from a direction

More next time. See ya 🙂

Suffixes / Adverbs of Place – Occurrences On The Surface of An Object

OCCURRENCE ON THE SURFACE OF AN OBJECT

The suffixes are:

Hol? = -n, -on, -en, -ön (> on, at)
Hova? = -ra, -re (> onto, to)
Honnan? = -ról, -ről (> from, from the surface of)

Examples for deep and high words:

az asztalon – on the table
az asztalra – onto the table
az asztalról – from the table

a széken – on the chair
a székre – onto the chair
a székről – from the chair

Like in the previous case, these can agree with different English prepositions. Understanding the Hungarian point of view is the only help you can count on. However, like I said before, once understood, you’ll see it’s absolutely logical. The suffix -n is used with words in a vowel.

The vowels a, e become á, é in those words: fa, gereblye

a fán – on the tree
a fára – onto the tree
a fáról – from the tree

a gereblyén – on the rake
a gereblyére – onto the rake
a gereblyéről – from the rake

Examples in sentences:

Az asztalon van a toll. – The pen is on the table.
Az asztalra teszem a tollat. – I’ll put the pen on(to) the table.
Az asztalról leesik a toll. – The pen falls from the table.

A széken van a táska. – The bag is on the chair.
A székre teszem a táskát. – I’ll put the bag on(to) the chair.
A székről leesik a táska. – The bag falls from the chair.

A fán énekel a madár. – The bird is singing on the tree.
A fára száll a madár. – The bird flies on(to) the tree.
A fáról elrepül a madár. – The bird flies away from the tree.

A gereblyén tücsök ciripel. – A cricket’s chirping on the rake.
A gereblyére tücsök ugrik. – A cricket jumps on(to) the rake.
A gereblyéről leugrik a tücsök. – The cricket jumps from the rake.

The difference between -ra, -re and -n, -on, -en, -ön:

Felmászok a hegyre. – I climb up (to) the mountain.
A hegyen sétálok. – I’m walking on the mountain.

Summary for suffixes on the surface of an object:
-ra, -re = towards a direction
-n, -on, -en, -ön = position > something is to be found somewhere
-ról, -ről = from a direction

So far you know these suffixes:
-ba, -be = into
-ban, -ben = in
-ból, -ből = from (inside)
-ra, -re = onto
-n, -on, -en, -ön = on
-ról, -ről = from (the surface of)

As you see some suffixes have two versions for high and deep, some have three. Learn the suffixes as you see here. There is no ö version (-bön) for -ban, -ben or an a version (-bal) for -ból, -ből. They have to be memorized as they are. For example -ből is used for standard high words and words having ö ő ü ű. However, -en is for standard high words, -ön is for high words containing ö ő ü ű. And so on…

What I mean by that is: DON’T INVENT SUFFIXES JUST BECAUSE IT WOULD AGREE WITH VOWEL HARMONY. There are only the versions you see here.

More next time. Bye now 🙂

Suffixes / Adverbs of Place – Occurrence Inside An Object

OCCURRENCE INSIDE AN OBJECT

The suffixes that refer to inside are:

Hol? = -ban, -ben (> in, at)
Hova? = -ba, -be (> in, into, to)
Honnan? = -ból, -ből (> from, from inside)

Examples for deep and high words:

a várban – in the castle
a várba – into the castle
a várból – from the castle

a fűben – in the grass
a fűbe – into the grass
a fűből – from the grass

The vowels a, e become á, é when these suffixes are attached to such a noun. Remember? The vowels a, e in an open syllable become á, é in plural and that’s true for these nouns, too: iskola, medence

az iskolában – at school
az iskolába – to school
az iskolából – from school

a medencében – in the pool
a medencébe – into the pool
a medencéből – from the pool

In fact, Hungarian is more logical in this respect compared to Germanic or Indo-European languages. When you have understood the Hungarian point of view, you’ll think that, too. 🙂

Examples in sentences:

A király a várban van. – The king is in the castle.
Bemegyek a várba. – I go into the castle.
Kijövök a várból. – I come out from the castle.

A nyúl a fűben alszik. – The bunny sleeps in the grass.
A nyúl a fűbe ugrik. – The bunny jumps into the grass.
A nyúl kiszalad a fűből. – The bunny runs out from the grass.

Tanulni lehet az iskolában. – You can learn at school.
Kedden megyek iskolába. – On Tuesday I go to school.
Kijövök az iskolából. – I come out from school.

A medencében úszok. – I swim in the pool.
A medencébe ugrok. – I jump into the pool.
A medencéből kiabálok. – I shout from the pool.

I know some sentences seem clumsy, but I think you got my point. And I also know that Present Simple Continuous would be more suitable in some sentences above, but there is not much space to write a longer line on this blog. 🙂

Some examples with questions:

Hol van most? – A boltban. / Az erdőben.
Where is he now? –In the shop. / In the forest.

Hova megy? -A boltba. / Az erdőbe.
Where is he going? –To the shop. / To the forest.

Honnan jön? -A boltból. / Az erdőből.
Where is he coming from? –From the shop. / From the forest.

NOTE! English doesn’t really ask ‘Where are you going to?’. You just say ‘Where are you going?’ without the to preposition. That’s why it’s important to be careful. The English question Where? means Hol? and Hova? at the same time.

In English the difference between -ba, -be and -ban, -ben is not always visible because both can be just translated with the in preposition sometimes. The following examples will surely help you.

Moziba megyek. – I’m going to the cinema.
Moziban vagyok. – I am in the cinema.

Summary for suffixes refering to inside:
-ba, -be = towards a direction
-ban, -ben = position > something is to be found somewhere
-ból, -ből = from a direction

This will be important for learning the other suffixes to express directions!

Suffixes / Adverbs of Place – Introduction

ADVERBS OF PLACE

Hungarian adverbs of place can be divided into four groups:

-occurrence inside an object
-occurrence on the surface of an object
-occurrence next to an object
-occurrence in a wider area (postpositions)

The fourth group contains the majority of the adverbs of place because the occurrences in the other three are restricted to a specific direction.

It’s important to remember that Hungarian uses suffixes, endings and postpositions instead of prepositions. That is, suffixes behave according to vowel harmony: high-vowel words take high-vowel suffixes, deep-vowel words take deep-vowel suffixes.

That being said, one should start learning the interrogative words relative to these adverbs. Here they are:

Hol? – Where?
Hova? – Where to?
Honnan? – Where from?

Hungarian has three different words for getting information about a specific direction. It is called irányhármasság, that is the three directions phenomenon. Think of the spanish interrogative words Dónde? A dónde? De dónde?

And another thing! Hova? can also have the form Hová? in which the á vowel is at the end of the word instead of the a vowel. Doesn’t matter which you use!

Next time we jump into the occurrences! Be prepared. It is an extensive topic. 🙂