Imperative Mood Definite Conjugation

Definite conjugation:
-jam, -jem
-d / -jad, -jed
-ja, -je
-juk, -jük
-játok, -jétek
-ják, -jék

Note that there is no special suffix for verbs with ö ő ü ű. Furthermore, just as the indefinite 2nd PS form can have a short and long version, the definite 2nd PS form also have two: -d for high and deep verbs OR -jad, -jed!

ÉLNI = TO LIVE
éljem
éld / éljed
élje
éljük
éljétek
éljék

TÖRNI = TO BREAK
törjem
törd / törjed
törje
törjük
törjétek
törjék

JÁRNI = TO WALK
járjam
járd / járjad
járja
járjuk
járjátok
járják

NO LINK VOWEL IS NEEDED FOR EITHER THE DEFINITE OR INDEFINITE CONJUGATION!

Some sentences:

Éld végre az életedet, és hagyj békén!
Live your life at last and leave me alone.

Ne törjétek össze az üveget!
Don’t break the glass!

Járja csak az utcákat! Előbb-utóbb megtalálja a címet.
Let him walk the streets. Sooner or later he’ll find the address.

Next time “exceptional” verbs. Bye now.

Imperative Mood Indefinite Conjugation

The general ending for imperative mood is: -j

Formation: indefinite 3rd PS verb + -j ending + suffix

kér + -j + -él > kérjél = (you had better) ask

Indefinite conjugation suffixes:
-jak, -jek
-j / -jál, -jél
-jon, -jen, -jön
-junk, -jünk
-jatok, -jetek
-janak, -jenek

NOTE! Verbs with ö ő ü ű take the -jön suffix in 3rd PS. The 2nd PS form can be just the -j for both high and deep verbs or you can use the longer versions -jál, -jél. It’s your decision. Examples:

ÉLNI = TO LIVE
éljek
élj / éljél
éljen
éljünk
éljetek
éljenek

SZÜLNI = TO BEAR
szüljek
szülj / szüljél
szüljön
szüljünk
szüljetek
szüljenek

JÁRNI = TO WALK
járjak
járj / járjál
járjon
járjunk
járjatok
járjanak

NO LINK VOWEL IS NEEDED FOR EITHER OF THE IMPERATIVE CONJUGATION FORMS!

Some sentences:

Soká éljen a király!
May the king live long!

Járjunk egyet a strandon!
Let’s have a walk on the beach.

Nem tudom, szüljek-e gyereket.
I’m not sure if I should have a child.

Next time definite conjugation. Bye now! 🙂

Moods And Imperative Mood

So far we’ve been talking about these topics:

present tense = jelen idő
past tense = múlt idő
future tense = jövő idő

And now it’s time to talk about moods. Hungarian has three moods. Here I give you the tenses you can use with the moods.

indicative: present, past, future
imperative: present
conditional: present, past

We’ve discussed present, past and future which are in indicative mood.

IMPERATIVE MOOD

First a small introduction to imperative mood.

The Hungarian term for imperative mood is: felszólító mód. As you see above, it can be expressed with one tense: present. Words in imperative mood have suffixes attached to them in all numbers/persons. Even for the 1st PS!

Some examples for what can be imperative:

Menj el! – Go away.
Hagyjatok békén! – Leave us alone.
Menjünk!  – Let’s go!
Jöjjenek!
They should come.
Ne kiabálj! – Don’t shout.

Hungarian imperative sentences always end with an exclamation mark!

The problem comes for a Hungarian student learning English when it’s about 1st PS, 1st PP, 3rd PS, 3rd PP. These forms are paraphrased in English, but have a suffix in Hungarian. Examples:

Vegyek kenyeret? – Shall I buy some bread?
Sétáljunk!Let’s walk.
Beszéljen! – He should talk. / He‘d better talk.
Beszéljenek! – They should talk. / They’d better talk.

As the 3rd PS and 3rd PP also express the polite forms (Remember ő, ők ön, maga, önök, maguk), Beszéljen! and Beszéljenek! can also mean: You (sir) should talk. You (gentlemen) should talk.

The 1st PS form is used when English says ‘Shall I…?’ and in the following situation:

Menjek veled? – Shall I come with you?
Legyek szerényebb? – Shall I be more humble?
Azt akarja, hogy legyek szerényebb – He wants me to be more humble.

Note that in the last sentence you see the 1st PS imperative form of the substantive verb (legyek). English, however, simplifies such sentences (me to be), but it would be possible to use subjunctive mood (He wants that I be…)

THE HUNGARIAN SOLUTION in such sentences IS MORE LIKE THE NOT REALLY USED ENGLISH SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD!

You shouldn’t worry about the two terms: subjunctive and imperative mood. Let’s just say they’re the same in Hungarian. So in the next entry we’ll learn how to conjugate verbs in imperative mood.

Bye 🙂